Begin forwarded message:
From: "Florence T. Cua"
Date: April 17, 2008 7:48:25 AM EDT
Cc: Carmelito Tatlonghari
Subject: Fwd: Perhaps these will interest you...Thanks, Lorenzo Cua and Jeffrey Gan, my webpage developers and of course Dr. Edward Arthur Christman
Geographical Information Systems
Geophysical Positioning Systems
Begin forwarded message:
From: Florence T. Cua
Date: April 16, 2008 6:15:21 PM EDT
To: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, j gan
Cc: Edward Christman
Subject: Perhaps these will interest you...Thanks, Lorenzo Cua and Jeffrey Gan, my webpage developers and of course Dr. Edward Arthur Christman
I started the literature reviews and lab researches( most were grant funded and more) which are to be found in
from blank to 17 after employment
These are compilations
United Nations Jobs
note: Chronicle for Higher Education
from blank to 11 after usgrantsgov
Philippine American Academy of Sciences and Engineering(PAASE)
These topics are:
3. Energy Sources
4. Sensors, Monitors, Detectors
5. Radiation, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety(REOHS)
6. National Aeronautics and Space Agency(NASA)
International Space Station
7. National Space Society(NSS)
8. Planetary Society
9. Money Making Ventures
a) Upromise http://www.upromise.com
f) Home Based Businesses http://www.freewebs.com/ftcua2/
g) Writing chapters, books and grants with the R&D groups
suggestion: check out
h) consulting in REOHS
10. Dental Research and Development
Radionuclides and Elements in Teeth and Bones
Hazard Surveys of Dental, Veterinary, and Cabinet X-ray Machines
11. Pontifical Academy of Sciences-none of us are there
12. Christman, Cua Associates
16. Publications online
17. Solar Researches
18. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration(NOAA), Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration(PAGASA), Federal Laboratories of the USA plus budgets
note: Physics Today, April 2008, USDOE budget 2007 actual, 2008 and 2009 estimated
19. Nobel Prize
the above is a partial list...
read up!!! just do not mess with me!!! or mess with me at your own risk!!!
Dr. Florence T. Cua-Christman, MS3, PhD
IAEA expert for the Republic of the Marshall Islands(helped made it one IAEA member after UN membership), People's Republic of China--Radiation Protection-Health Physics, Balik Scientist Philippine Nuclear Research Institute(PNRI),
also, US Civilian Research and Development Foundation(USCRDF) gave me honorarium for 4 out of 7 grant proposals I reviewed for them...
consultant, Hybridigm Consulting-Phillippine Biotech
will the anti nuke refrain from killing the pro nuke until such time as it is deem absolutely necessary--is that what happened to the PNPP-1?
is that hanging yourself on a noose?
perhaps IAEA should ponder the problems that exists with the anti-nukes vs. pro-nukes
place this over the rest
Jeffrey, if you cannot work for me, recommend another person or train her/him...
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Battery.
Various batteries (clockwise from bottom left): two 9-volt, two AA, one D, a handheld ham radio battery, a cordless phone battery, a camcorder battery, one C, and two AAA.
In electronics, a battery is two or more electrochemical cells connected in series which store chemical energy and make it available as electrical energy. Common usage has evolved to include a single electrical cell in the definition. There are many types of electrochemical cells, including galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, fuel cells, flow cells, and voltaic piles. A battery's characteristics may vary due to many factors including internal chemistry, current drain, and temperature.
One common division of batteries distinguishes two types: primary (disposable) and secondary (rechargeable). Primary batteries are designed to be used once only because they use up their chemicals in an effectively irreversible reaction. Secondary batteries can be recharged because the chemical reactions they use are reversible; they are recharged by running a charging current through the battery, but in the opposite direction of the discharge current. Secondary, also called rechargeable batteries can be charged and discharged many times before wearing out. After wearing out some batteries can be recycled.
Although an early form of battery may have been used in antiquity, the modern development of batteries started with the Voltaic pile, invented by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800. Since then, batteries have gained popularity as they became portable and useful for many purposes. The widespread use of batteries has created many environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution. Many reclamation companies recycle batteries to reduce the number of batteries going into landfills.
2 How batteries work
3 Classification of batteries
3.1 Disposable and rechargeable
126.96.36.199 Flow batteries
3.2 Homemade cells
3.3 Battery packs
3.4 Traction batteries
4 Battery capacity and discharging
5 Battery lifetime
5.1 Life of primary batteries
5.2 Life of rechargeable batteries
5.3 Extending battery life
6 Problems with batteries
6.1 Battery hazards
6.2 Environmental concerns
8 See also
9.2 Further reading
10 External links
Volta realized that the frog's moist tissues could be replaced by cardboard soaked in salt water, and the frog's muscular response could be replaced by another form of electrical detection. He already had studied the electrostatic phenomenon of capacitance, which required measurements of electric charge and of electrical potential. Building on this experience Volta was able to detect electric current flow through his system, now called a voltaic cell, or cell for short. The terminal voltage of a cell that is not discharging is called its electromotive force (emf), and has the same unit as electrical potential, named (voltage) and measured in volts, in honor of Volta. In 1799, Volta invented the battery by placing many voltaic cells in series, literally piling them one above the other. This Voltaic Pile gave a greatly enhanced net emf for the combination, with a voltage of about 50 volts for a 32-cell pile. In many parts of Europe batteries continue to be called piles.
Unfortunately, Volta did not appreciate that the voltage was due to chemical reactions. He thought that his cells were an inexhaustible source of energy, and that the associated chemical effects (e.g. corrosion) were a mere nuisance, rather than, as Michael Faraday showed around 1830, an unavoidable consequence of their operation.
Early batteries were of great value for experimental purposes, their limitations made them impractical for large current drain. Later, starting with the Daniell cell in 1836, batteries provided more reliable currents and were adopted by industry for use in stationary devices, particularly in telegraph networks where they were the only practical source of electricity, since electrical distribution networks did not exist then. These wet cells used liquid electrolytes, which were prone to leaks and spillage if not handled correctly. Many used glass jars to hold their components, which made them fragile. These characteristics made wet cells unsuitable for portable appliances. Near the end of the 19th century, the invention of dry cell batteries, which replaced liquid electrolyte with a paste made portable electrical devices practical.
The battery has since become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales annually.
How batteries work
Main article: Electrochemical cell
A voltaic cell for demonstration purposes. In this example the two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge separator that permits the transfer of ions, but not water molecules.
A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy. It consists of one or more voltaic cells. Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte. One half-cell is the positive electrode, and the other is the negative electrode. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte, which can be either solid or liquid. In many cells the materials are enclosed in a container, and a separator, which is porous to the electrolyte, prevents the electrodes from coming into contact.
Each half cell has an electromotive force (or emf), determined by its ability to drive electric current from the interior to the exterior of the cell. The net emf of the battery is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells, as first recognized by Volta. Thus, if the electrodes have emfs and , then the net emf is . (Hence, two identical electrodes and a common electrolyte give zero net emf.)
The electrical potential difference, or across the terminals of a battery is known as its terminal voltage, and is measured in volts. The terminal voltage of a battery that is neither charging nor discharging is called the open-circuit voltage, and equals the emf of the battery. Because of internal resistance, the terminal voltage of a battery that is discharging is smaller in magnitude than the open-circuit voltage, and the terminal voltage of a battery that is charging exceeds the open-circuit voltage. An ideal battery has negligible internal resistance, so it would always have a terminal voltage of . This means that to produce a potential difference of 1.5 V, chemical reactions inside would do 1.5 J of work for a charge of 1 C.
The voltage developed across a cell's terminals depends on the chemicals used in it and their concentrations. For example, alkaline and carbon-zinc cells both measure about 1.5 volts, due to the energy release of the associated chemical reactions. Because of the high electrochemical potential changes in the reactions of lithium compounds, lithium cells can provide as much as 3 volts or more.
Classification of batteries
Disposable and rechargeable
From top to bottom: Two button cells, a 9-volt PP3 battery, an AAA battery, an AA battery, a C battery, a D battery, a large 3R12.
Batteries are usually divided into two broad classes:
Primary batteries irreversibly transform chemical energy to electrical energy. When the initial supply of reactants is exhausted, energy cannot be readily restored to the battery by electrical means.
Secondary batteries can be recharged, that is, have their chemical reactions reversed by supplying electrical energy to the cell, restoring their original composition.
Historically, some types of primary batteries used, for example, for telegraph circuits, were restored to operation by replacing the components of the battery consumed by the chemical reaction. Secondary batteries are not indefinitely rechargeable due to dissipation of the active materials, loss of electrolyte, and internal corrosion.
From a user's viewpoint, at least, batteries can be generally divided into two main types: non-rechargeable (disposable) and rechargeable. Each type is in wide usage, as each has its own advantages.
Disposable batteries are also called primary cells, are intended to be used once and discarded. These are most commonly used in portable devices with either low current drain, only used intermittently, or used well away from an alternative power source. Primary cells were also commonly used for alarm and communication circuits where other electric power was only intermittently available. Primary cells cannot be reliably recharged, since the chemical reactions are not easily reversible and active materials may not return to their original forms. Battery manufacturers recommend against attempting to recharge primary cells, although some electronics enthusiasts claim it is possible to do so using a special type of charger.
By contrast, rechargeable batteries or secondary cells can be re-charged by applying electrical current, which reverses the chemical reactions that occur in use. Devices to supply the appropriate current are called chargers or rechargers.
The oldest form of rechargeable battery still in modern usage is the "wet cell" lead-acid battery. This battery is notable in that it contains a liquid in an unsealed container, requiring that the battery be kept upright and the area be well ventilated to ensure safe dispersal of the hydrogen gas produced by these batteries during overcharging. The lead-acid battery is also very heavy for the amount of electrical energy it can supply. Despite this, its low manufacturing cost and its high surge current levels make its use common where a large capacity (over approximately 10Ah) is required or where the weight and ease of handling are not concerns.
A common form of lead-acid battery is the modern wet-cell car battery. This can deliver about 10,000 watts of power for a short period, and has a peak current output that varies from 450 to 1100 amperes. An improved type of liquid electrolyte battery is the sealed valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery, popular in automotive industry as a replacement for the lead-acid wet cell, as well as in many lower capacity roles including smaller vehicles and stationary applications such as emergency lighting and alarm systems. The one-way pressure activated valve eliminates electrolyte evaporation while allowing out-gassing to prevent rupture. This greatly improves resistance to damage from vibration and heat. VRLA batteries have the electrolyte immobilized, usually by one of two means:
Gel batteries (or "gel cell") contain a semi-solid electrolyte to prevent spillage.
Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) batteries absorb the electrolyte in a special fiberglass matting
Other portable rechargeable batteries include several "dry cell" types, which are sealed units and are therefore useful in appliances like mobile phones and laptops. Cells of this type (in order of increasing power density and cost) include nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), and lithium-ion (Li-Ion) cells.
Recent developments include batteries with embedded functionality such as USBCELL, with a built-in charger and USB connector within the AA format, enabling the battery to be charged by plugging into a USB port without a charger, and low self-discharge (LSD) mix chemistries such as Hybrio, ReCyko, and Eneloop, where cells are precharged prior to shipping.
Not designed to be rechargeable - sometimes called "primary cells". "Disposable" may also imply that special disposal procedures must take place for proper disposal according to regulation, depending on battery type.
Zinc-carbon battery: mid cost, used in light drain applications.
Zinc-chloride battery: similar to zinc-carbon but slightly longer life.
Alkaline battery: alkaline/manganese "long life" batteries widely used in both light-drain and heavy-drain applications.
Silver-oxide battery: commonly used in hearing aids, watches, and calculators.
Lithium Iron Disulfide battery: commonly used in digital cameras. Sometimes used in watches and computer clocks. Very long life (up to ten years in wristwatches) and capable of delivering high currents but expensive. Will operate in sub-zero temperatures.
Lithium-Thionyl Chloride battery: used in industrial applications, including computers, electric meters and other devices which contain volatile memory circuits and act as a "carryover" voltage to maintain the memory in the event of a main power failure. Other applications include providing power for wireless gas and water meters. The cells are rated at 3.6 Volts and come in 1/2AA, AA, 2/3A, A, C, D & DD sizes. They are relatively expensive, but have a long shelf life, losing less than 10% of their capacity in ten years.
Mercury battery: formerly used in digital watches, radio communications, and portable electronic instruments. Manufactured only for specialist applications due to toxicity.
Zinc-air battery: commonly used in hearing aids.
Thermal battery: high-temperature reserve. Almost exclusively military applications.
Water-activated battery: used for radiosondes and emergency applications.
Nickel Oxyhydroxide battery: Ideal for applications that use bursts of high current, such as digital cameras. They will last two times longer than alkaline batteries in digital cameras.
Paper battery: In August 2007, a research team at RPI (led by Drs. Robert Linhardt, Pulickel M. Ajayan, and Omkaram Nalamasu) developed a paper battery with aligned carbon nanotubes, designed to function as both a lithium-ion battery and a supercapacitor, using ionic liquid, essentially a liquid salt, as electrolyte. The sheets can be rolled, twisted, folded, or cut into numerous shapes with no loss of integrity or efficiency, or stacked, like printer paper (or a voltaic pile), to boost total output. As well, they can be made in a variety of sizes, from postage stamp to broadsheet. Their light weight and low cost make them attractive for portable electronics, aircraft, and automobiles, while their ability to use electrolytes in blood make them potentially useful for medical devices such as pacemakers. In addition, they are biodegradable, unlike most other disposable cells.
A rechargeable lithium polymer Nokia mobile phone battery.
Main articles: Rechargeable battery and Battery charger
Also known as secondary batteries or accumulators. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association has estimated that U.S. demand for rechargeables is growing twice as fast as demand for non-rechargeables.  There are a few main types:
Nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd): Best used for motorized equipment and other high-discharge, short-term devices. NiCd batteries can withstand even more drain than NiMH; however, the mAh rating is not high enough to keep a device running for very long, and the memory effect is far more severe.
Nickel-metal hydride battery (NiMH): Best used for high-tech devices. NiMH batteries can last up to four times longer than alkaline batteries because NiMH can withstand high current for a long while.
Rechargeable alkaline battery: Uses similar chemistry as non-rechargeable alkaline batteries and are best suited for similar applications. Additionally, they hold their charge for years, unlike NiCd and NiMH batteries.
Flow batteries are a special class of rechargeable battery where additional quantities of electrolyte are stored outside the main power cell of the battery, and circulated through it by pumps or by movement. Flow batteries can have extremely large capacities and are used in marine applications and are gaining popularity in grid energy storage applications.
Zinc-bromine and vanadium redox batteries are typical examples of commercially available flow batteries.
Almost any liquid or moist object that has enough ions to be electrically conductive can serve as the electrolyte for a cell. As a novelty or science demonstration, it is possible to insert two electrodes made of different metals into a lemon, potato, et cetera and generate small amounts of electricity. "Two-potato clocks" are also widely available in hobby and toy stores; they consist of a pair of cells, each consisting of a potato (lemon, et cetera) with two electrodes inserted into it, wired in series to form a battery with enough voltage to power a digital clock. Homemade cells of this kind are of no real practical use, because they produce far less current—and cost far more per unit of energy generated—than commercial cells, due to the need for frequent replacement of the fruit or vegetable. In addition, one can make a voltaic pile from two coins (such as a nickel and a penny) and a piece of paper towel dipped in salt water. Such a pile would make very little voltage itself, but when many of them are stacked together in series, they can replace normal batteries for a short amount of time.
Sony has developed a biologically friendly battery that generates electricity from sugar in a way that is similar to the processes observed in living organisms. The battery generates electricity through the use of enzymes that break down carbohydrates, which are essentially sugar.
Lead acid cells can easily be manufactured at home, but a tedious charge/discharge cycle is needed to 'form' the plates. This is a process whereby lead sulfate forms on the plates, and during charge is converted to lead dioxide (positive plate) and pure lead (negative plate). Repeating this process results in a microscopically rough surface, with far greater surface area being exposed. This increases the current the cell can deliver. For an example, see .
Daniell cells are also easy to make at home. Aluminum-air batteries can also be produced with high purity aluminum. Aluminum foil batteries will produce some electricity, but they are not very efficient, in part because a significant amount of hydrogen gas is produced.
Main article: Battery pack
The cells in a battery can be connected in parallel, series, or in both. A parallel combination of cells has the same voltage as a single cell, but can supply a higher current (the sum of the currents from all the cells). A series combination has the same current rating as a single cell but its voltage is the sum of the voltages of all the cells. Most practical electrochemical batteries, such as 9-volt flashlight batteries and 12-volt automobile batteries, have several cells connected in series inside the casing. Parallel arrangements suffer from the problem that, if one cell discharges faster than its neighbour, current will flow from the full cell to the empty cell, wasting power and possibly causing overheating. Even worse, if one cell becomes short-circuited due to an internal fault, its neighbour will be forced to discharge its maximum current into the faulty cell, leading to overheating and possibly explosion. Cells in parallel are therefore usually fitted with an electronic circuit to protect them against these problems. In both series and parallel types, the energy stored in the battery is equal to the sum of the energies stored in all the cells.
Main article: Traction battery
Traction batteries are high-power batteries designed to provide propulsion to move a vehicle, such as an electric car or tow motor. A major design consideration is power to weight ratio since the vehicle must carry the battery. While conventional lead acid batteries with liquid electrolyte have been used, gelled electrolyte and AGM-type can also be used, especially in smaller sizes.
The largest installations of batteries for propulsion of vehicles are found in submarines, although the toxic gas produced by seawater contact with acid electrolyte is a considerable hazard.
Battery types commercially used in electric vehicles include
lead-acid battery, which uses lead(IV) oxide (PbO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
flooded type with liquid electrolyte
AGM-type (Absorbed Glass Mat)
Zebra Na/NiCl2 battery operating at 270 °C requiring cooling in case of temperature excursions
NiZn battery (higher cell voltage 1.6 V and thus 25% increased specific energy, very short lifespan)
See also: battery electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicle.
Battery capacity and discharging
A device to check the charge of batteries
The more electrolyte and electrode material there is in the cell, the greater the capacity of the cell. Thus a small cell has less capacity than a larger cell, given the same chemistry (e.g. alkaline cells), though they develop the same open-circuit voltage.
Because of the chemical reactions within the cells, the capacity of a battery depends on the discharge conditions such as the magnitude of the current, the duration of the current, the allowable terminal voltage of the battery, temperature, and other factors.
The available capacity of a battery depends upon the rate at which it is discharged. If a battery is discharged at a relatively high rate, the available capacity will be lower than expected.
The battery capacity that battery manufacturers print on a battery is the product of 20 hours multiplied by the maximum constant current that a new battery can supply for 20 hours at 68 F° (20 C°), down to a predetermined terminal voltage per cell.
A battery rated at 100 A·h will deliver 5 A over a 20 hour period at room temperature. However, if it is instead discharged at 50 A, it will run out of charge before the theoretically expected 2 hours.
For this reason, a battery capacity rating is always related to an expected discharge duration—the standard duration is 20 hours.
CBatt is the battery capacity (typically given in mAh).
I is the current drawn from battery (mA).
h is the amount of time (in hours) that a battery can sustain.
The relationship between current, discharge time, and capacity for a lead acid battery is expressed by Peukert's law. The efficiency of a battery is different at different discharge rates. When discharging at low rate, the battery's energy is delivered more efficiently than at higher discharge rates.
In general, the higher the ampere-hour rating, the longer the battery will last for a certain load. Installing batteries with different A·h ratings will not affect the operation of a device rated for a specific voltage unless the load limits of the battery are exceeded. Theoretically, a battery would operate at its A·h rating, but realistically, high-drain loads like digital cameras can result in lower actual energy, most notably for alkaline batteries. For example, a battery rated at 2000 mAh may not sustain a current of 1 A for the full two hours.
Typical alkaline battery sizes and capacities (at lowest discharge rates)
Diagram Size Capacity (mAh) Voltage ANSI/NEDA IEC Diam. (mm) Mass (g) Height (mm) Length (mm) Width (mm)
AAAA 625 1.5 25A LR8D425 8.3 6.5 42.5 cylindrical cylindrical
N 1000 1.5 910A LR1 12 9 30.2 cylindrical cylindrical
AAA 1250 1.5 24A LR03 10.5 11.5 44.5 cylindrical cylindrical
AA 2850 1.5 15A LR6 14.5 23 50.5 cylindrical cylindrical
J 625 6 1412A 4LR61 prismatic 30 48.5 35.6 9.18
9V 625 9 1604A 6LR61 prismatic 45.6 48.5 26.5 17.5
C 8350 1.5 14A LR14 26.2 66.2 50 cylindrical cylindrical
D 20500 1.5 13A LR20 34.2 148 61.5 cylindrical cylindrical
Lantern 26000 6 915A 4R25Y prismatic 885 112 68.2 68.2
Lantern 26000 6 908A 4LR25X prismatic 885 115 68.2 68.2
Lantern 52000 6 918A 4LR25-2 prismatic 1900 127 136.5 73
Discharging performance of all batteries drops at low temperature.
Life of primary batteries
Even if never taken out of the original package, disposable (or "primary") batteries can lose 8 to 20 percent of their original charge every year at a temperature of about 20°–30°C. This is known as the "self discharge" rate and is due to non-current-producing "side" chemical reactions, which occur within the cell even if no load is applied to it. The rate of the side reactions is reduced if the batteries are stored at low temperature, although some batteries can be damaged by freezing. High or low temperatures may reduce battery performance. This will affect the initial voltage of the battery. For an AA alkaline battery this initial voltage is approximately normally distributed around 1.6 volts.
Life of rechargeable batteries
Rechargeable batteries traditionally self-discharge more rapidly than disposable alkaline batteries; up to three percent a day (depending on temperature). However, modern Lithium designs have reduced the self-discharge rate to a relatively low level (but still poorer than for primary batteries). Due to their poor shelf life, rechargeable batteries should not be stored and then relied upon to power flashlights or radios in an emergency. For this reason, it is a good idea to keep alkaline batteries on hand. NiCd Batteries are almost always "dead" when purchased, and must be charged before first use.
Although rechargeable batteries may be refreshed by charging, they still suffer degradation through usage. Low-capacity Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries (1700-2000 mAh) can be charged for about 1000 cycles, whereas high capacity NiMH batteries (above 2500 mAh) can be charged for about 500 cycles. Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries tend to be rated for 1,000 cycles before their internal resistance increases beyond usable values. Normally a fast charge, rather than a slow overnight charge, will result in a shorter battery lifespan. However, if the overnight charger is not "smart" (i.e. it cannot detect when the battery is fully charged), then overcharging is likely, which will damage the battery. Degradation usually occurs because electrolyte migrates away from the electrodes or because active material falls off the electrodes. NiCd batteries suffer the drawback that they should be fully discharged before recharge. Without full discharge, crystals may build up on the electrodes, thus decreasing the active surface area and increasing internal resistance. This decreases battery capacity and causes the dreaded "memory effect". These electrode crystals can also penetrate the electrolyte separator, thereby causing shorts. NiMH, although similar in chemistry, does not suffer from "memory effect" to quite this extent.
Automotive lead-acid rechargeable batteries have a much harder life. Because of vibration, shock, heat, cold, and sulfation of their lead plates, few automotive batteries last beyond six years of regular use. Automotive starting batteries have many thin plates to provide as much current as possible in a reasonably small package. Typically they are only drained a small amount before recharge. Care should be taken to avoid deep discharging a starting battery, since each charge and discharge cycle causes active material to be shed from the plates. Hole formation in the plates leads to less surface area for the current-producing chemical reactions, resulting in less available current when under load. Leaving a lead-acid battery in a deeply discharged state for any significant length of time allows the lead sulfate to crystallize, making it difficult or impossible to remove during the charging process. This can result in a permanent reduction in the available plate surface, and therefore reduced current output and energy capacity.
"Deep-Cycle" lead-acid batteries such as those used in electric golf carts have much thicker plates to aid their longevity. The main benefit of the lead-acid battery is its low cost; the main drawbacks are its large size and weight for a given capacity and voltage. Lead-acid batteries should never be discharged to below 20% of their full capacity, because internal resistance will cause heat and damage when they are recharged. Deep-cycle lead-acid systems often use a low-charge warning light or a low-charge power cut-off switch to prevent the type of damage that will shorten the battery's life.
Special "reserve" batteries intended for long storage in emergency equipment or munitions keep the electrolyte of the battery separate from the plates until the battery is activated, allowing the cells to be filled with the electrolyte. Shelf times for such batteries can be years or decades. However, their construction is more expensive than more common forms.
Extending battery life
Battery life can be extended by storing the batteries at a low temperature, as in a refrigerator or freezer, because the chemical reactions in the batteries are slower. Such storage can extend the life of alkaline batteries by ~5%; while the charge of rechargeable batteries can be extended from a few days up to several months. In order to reach their maximum voltage, batteries must be returned to room temperature; therefore, alkaline battery manufacturers like Duracell do not recommend refrigerating or freezing batteries.
Problems with batteries
A battery explosion is caused by the misuse or malfunction of a battery, such as attempting to recharge a primary (non-rechargeable) battery, or short circuiting a battery. With car batteries, explosions are most likely to occur when a short circuit generates very large currents. In addition, car batteries liberate hydrogen when they are overcharged (because of electrolysis of the water in the electrolyte). Normally the amount of overcharging is very small, as is the amount of explosive gas developed, and the gas dissipates quickly. However, when "jumping" a car battery, the high current can cause the rapid release of large volumes of hydrogen, which can be ignited by a nearby spark (for example, when removing the jumper cables).
When a battery is recharged at an excessive rate, an explosive gas mixture of hydrogen and oxygen may be produced faster than it can escape from within the walls of the battery, leading to pressure build-up and the possibility of the battery case bursting. In extreme cases, the battery acid may spray violently from the casing of the battery and cause injury. Overcharging—that is, attempting to charge a battery beyond its electrical capacity—can also lead to a battery explosion, leakage, or irreversible damage to the battery. It may also cause damage to the charger or device in which the overcharged battery is later used. Additionally, disposing of a battery in fire may cause an explosion as steam builds up within the sealed case of the battery.
Since their development over 250 years ago, batteries have remained among the most expensive energy sources, and their manufacturing consumes many valuable resources and often involves hazardous chemicals. Used batteries also contribute to electronic waste. For these reasons, many areas now have battery recycling services available to recover some of the more toxic (and sometimes valuable) materials from used batteries. Batteries may be harmful or fatal if swallowed. It is also important to prevent dangerous elements, such as lead, mercury, and cadmium, that are found in some types of batteries from entering the environment.
Since the late 1990s, advances in battery technologies have been driven by skyrocketing demand for laptop computers and mobile phones, with consumer demand for more features, larger, brighter displays, and longer battery time driving research and development in the field. The electric vehicle marketplace has reaped the benefits of these advances.
A battery (vacuum tubes)
B battery (vacuum tubes)
C battery (vacuum tubes)
List of battery sizes
List of battery types
^ Battery" (def. 6), The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, the Unabridged Edition (2nd edition), 1996 ed.
^ Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary: "battery"
^ Spotlight on Photovoltaics & Fuel Cells: A Web-based Study & Comparison (PDF) 1-2. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
^ Battery - Background, Primary cells, Secondary cells - Net Industries Science Encyclopedia. Retrieved 26 August 2007.
^ Battery Recycling - Cost-Effective and Safe Disposal - Battery Solutions. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
^ Battery Technology: History - ExtremeTech. Retrieved 10 September 2007.
^ Batteries | Product Stewardship | Wastes | EPA. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
^ Municipal Solid Waste - Commodities: Batteries - EPA. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
^ Willie Weinberg. Volta - The Italian American Website of New York. Accessed 19 March 2007.
^ Saslow, Ch. 8, p. 338.
^ Battery History, Technology, Applications and Development. Accessed 19 March 2007.
^ Power Shift: DFJ on the lookout for more power source investments. Accessed 20 November 2005.
^ Marshall Brain. "How Batteries Work" - Howstuffworks. Accessed 28 March 2007.
^ BBC- Rough Science Library. Accessed 28 March 2007.
^ Saslow 338.
^ a b Knight 943.
^ Knight 976.
^ Terminal Voltage - Tiscali Reference. Originally from Hutchinson Encyclopaedia. Accessed 7 April 2007.
^ Dingrando 674.
^ Dingrando 677.
^ Dingrando 675.
^ Fink, Ch. 11, Sec. "Batteries and Fuel Cells."
^ a b Isidor Buchmann, Will secondary batteries replace primaries? - Battery University. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
^ Battery Xtender. Retrieved 7 March 2007.
^ Isidor Buchmann, Can the lead-acid battery compete in modern times? - Battery University. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
^ USBCELL - Revolutionary rechargeable USB battery that can charge from any USB port. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
^ Long Life Batteries You Can Recharge - Hybrio. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
^ GP ReCyko. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
^ SANYO Presents 'eneloop' : A New Battery in place of Dry Cell Battery for the 21st Century. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
^ Tadiran Batteries - Better By Design. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
^ Edward C. Baig, USATODAY.com - Batteries up! With more power. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
^ August 2007 Globe and Mail
^ Michael Mullaney, RPI: News & Events - Beyond Batteries: Storing Power in a Sheet of Paper. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
^ Batteries | Product Stewardship | Wastes | EPA
^ MPower: Nickel Cadmium NiCad Batteries. Retrieved 2006 August 2007.
^ Energizer.com - Products - Rechargeables. Retrieved 26 August 2007.
^ Welcome to Juice Batteries. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
^ a b Flow Batteries - MPower. Retrieved 9 September 2007.
^ ushistory.org: The Lemon Battery. Accessed 10 April 2007.
^ ZOOM . activities . phenom . Potato Battery. Accessed 10 April 2007.
^ Two-Potato Clock - Science Kit and Boreal Laboratories. Accessed 10 April 2007.
^ Howstuffworks "Battery Experiments: Voltaic Pile". Accessed 10 April 2007.
^ Sony Develops A Bio Battery Powered By Sugar. Accessed 24 August 2007.
^ Howstuffworks "Battery Reactions and Chemistry". Retrieved 20 September 2007.
^ Isidor Buchmann, Serial and parallel battery configurations - Battery University. Retrieved 26 August 2007.
^ Engineers Edge: Traction Battery. Retrieved 26 August 2007.
^ Battery Council International: Lead Acid Batteries. Retrieved 26 August 2007.
^ http://mastervolt-solar.com/batteries/index.asp Products: Mastervolt gel batteries]. Retrieved 26 August 2007.
^ Johnson Controls Inc.: AGM technology for semi-traction. Retrieved 26 August 2007.
^ Dingrando 675.
^ a b Battery Knowledge - AA Portable Power Corp.. Accessed 16 April 2007.
^ Battery Capacity - Techlib. Accessed 10 April 2007.
^ Battery Backup Application Handbook - Transtronics. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
^ Alkaline Technical Information. Energizer.
^ Discharging at high and low temperature
^ Self discharge of batteries - Corrosion Doctors. Retrieved 9 September 2007.
^ a b Rechargeable battery Tips - NIMH Technology Information. Retrieved 10 August 2007.
^ battery myths vs battery facts - free information to help you learn the difference. Retrieved 10 August 2007.
^ What does ‘memory effect’ mean?. Retrieved 10 August 2007.
^ Ask Yahoo: Does putting batteries in the freezer make them last longer?. Retrieved 7 March 2007.
^ Duracell: Battery Care. Retrieved 7 March 2007.
^ Energizer.com - Learning Center - Energizer and the Environment. Accessed 17 December 2007.
^ a b Battery dont's - Global-Batteries. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
^ Battery Recycling » Earth 911. Retrieved 9 September 2007.
^ Product Safety DataSheet - Energizer (PDF, p. 2). Retrieved 9 September 2007.
Dingrando, Laurel; et al. (2007). Chemistry: Matter and Change. New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-877237-5. Ch. 21 (pp. 662-695) is on electrochemistry.
Fink, Donald G.; H. Wayne Beaty (1978). Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, Eleventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07020974-X.
Knight, Randall D. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach. San Francisco: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-8053-8960-1. Chs. 28-31 (pp. 879-995) contain information on electric potential.
Linden, David; Thomas B. Reddy (2001). Handbook Of Batteries. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-0713-5978-8.
Saslow, Wayne M. (2002). Electricity, Magnetism, and Light. Toronto: Thomson Learning. ISBN 0-12-619455-6. Chs. 8-9 (pp. 336-418) have more information on batteries.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
HowStuffWorks: How batteries work
Batteries Recycling Process
Cellphone batteries explained
Battery guide for digital cameras
Battery and batteries knowledge base
Storing power in a sheet of paper
Comprehensive knowledge base about battery technology, battery applications, chargers and ancillary equipment.
Improvements in battery performance due to nanotechnology
Categories: Electric batteries | Recyclable materials
article discussion edit this page history
Log in / create account
Donate to Wikipedia
What links here
Cite this page
Kurdî / كوردی
Српски / Srpski
This page was last modified on 15 April 2008, at 11:28. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.)
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity.
Begin forwarded message:
From: Florence T. Cua
Date: April 15, 2008 11:43:32 AM EDT
To: Christine Peterson
Subject: Fwd: Atomic, Nuclear and Radiation Batteries Jeffrery, place ASAP in http://www.freewebs.com/ftcuatableofelements/
Begin forwarded message:
From: Florence T. Cua
Date: April 15, 2008 11:29:05 AM EDT
To: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, j gan
Cc: email@example.com, Edward Christman
Subject: Atomic, Nuclear and Radiation Batteries Jeffrery, place ASAP in http://www.freewebs.com/ftcuatableofelements/
Title: Atomic, Nuclear and Radiation Batteries
from Wikipedia Encyclopedia
Atomic batteries use radioisotopes that produce low energy beta particles or sometimes alpha particles of varying energies. Low energy beta particles are needed to prevent the production of high energy penetrating Bremsstrahlung radiation that would require heavy shielding. Radioisotopes such as tritium, nickel-63, promethium-147, and technetium-99 have been tested. Plutonium-238, curium-242, curium-244 and strontium-90 have been used.
Atomic batteries usually have an efficiency of 0.1–5%.
Main article: Optoelectric nuclear battery
An optolectric nuclear battery has also been proposed by researchers of the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow. A beta-emitter (such as technetium-99) would stimulate an excimer mixture, and the light would power a photocell. The battery would consist of an excimer mixture of argon/xenon in a pressure vessel with an internal mirrored surface, finely-divided Tc-99, and an intermittent ultrasonic stirrer, illuminating a photocell with a bandgap tuned for the excimer. If the pressure-vessel is carbon fiber/epoxy, the weight to power ratio is said to be comparable to an air-breathing engine with fuel tanks. The advantage of this design is that precision electrode assemblies are not needed, and most beta particles escape the finely-divided bulk material to contribute to the battery's net power.
The Russians were trying to interest us with second hand radioisotope thermal generators.
The USA John Glenn Research Center is perfecting the Stirling Radioisotope Thermal Generators.
Aleees and NSRRC entered a collaborative agreement.
Aleees and NSRRC will corporate on advancing the nano-LFP battery technology.
check out the cross section of Li-6 for neutrons for the cross section of Li-7 for gamma...
GENERATORS SHOULD BE OUTFITTED WITH SENSORS OR ALARMS OR MONITORS TO DETECT HAZARDOUS EMISSIONS.
Behavior of Li-Ion Cells in High-Intensity Radiation Environments
J. Electrochem. Soc., Volume 151, Issue 4, pp. A652-A659 (2004)
B. V. Ratnakumar, M. C. Smart, L. D. Whitcanack, E. D. Davies, K. B. Chin, F. Deligiannis, and S. Surampudi
Electrochemical Technologies Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
Plainsboro Public Library, please obtain for the the Article above-mentioned and below-mentioned. Highlighted.
Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Applications
Bugga, Ratnakumar Smart, Marshall Whitacre, Jay West, William
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109. firstname.lastname@example.org; 818 354 0110;
This paper appears in: Aerospace Conference, 2007 IEEE
Publication Date: 3-10 March 2007
On page(s): 1-7
Location: Big Sky, MT, USA,
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/AERO.2007.352728
Posted online: 2007-06-18 10:23:29.0
Interplanetary missions require rechargeable batteries with unique performance characteristics: high specific energy, wide operating temperatures, demonstrated reliability, and safety. Li-ion batteries are fast becoming the most common energy storage solution for these missions, as they are able to meet the more demanding technical specifications without being excessively massive. At JPL, we have undertaken materials development studies on both cathodes and electrolytes with the goal of further enhancing battery specific energy, discharge and charge capability, and functional temperature range. Results of these studies are described below.
Protecting organisms and the environment from harmful radiation by controlling such radiation and safely disposing of its energy
Document Type and Number:
United States Patent 5122332
Link to this page:
A radiation gradient is utilized to transform harmful radiant energy into safer, more useful forms, thus collecting, controlling and consuming the energies of radiant emissions and protecting the environment and living organisms from them. More specifically, there is disclosed a new process for shielding emitters of harmful radiation by establishing an electrical circuit, which process includes shielding the source of radiation while collecting the energy of relatively more radiation on an electrically conductive material and collecting the energy of relatively less radiation on other electrically conductive material, which may include a ground or external sink, thus establishing a difference in electrical potential, and transferring this potential difference, along with any potential difference from auxiliary devices, outside the shielded area, to resistors and/or variable other loads, which consume the voltage as it is created. In this way emissions of radiation are converted to electrical energy and are controlled and the source of radiation is better shielded because the described process prevents build-up of energy within the shielded area and prevents consequent deterioration of the shielding material, thus preventing flash-overs, accidents, breaks and leaks in the shielding and providing greater protection of living organisms.
Energy and Radiation
Perry Sprawls, Ph.D.
3. Needed: Batteries that we charge with electromagnetic radiation
5. Should you buy second hand Radioisotope Thermal Generators from the Russians or the Americans?
6. The relatively new one is Stirling Radioisotope Thermal Generator, the prototype by NASA Glenn Research Center.
7. Electrical Generators
8. Batteries for All Seasons and All Applications
9. CONVERT THE MECHANICAL ENERGIES, RADIATION AND ELECTROMAGNETIC SOURCES ENERGIES AND STORE THEM IN BATTERIES BIG, MEDIUM, SMALL AND NANO? CARRY POWER PACKS WHEN YOU NEED.
10. TRANSFORM ALL FORMS OF ENERGIES TO CHARGE BATTERIES THAT SHOULD BE DIMINUTIVE ENOUGH SO THAT IT DOES NOT OCCUPY TOO MUCH SPACE OR HAVE TOO MUCH WEIGHT.
WHAT KIND OF MATERIAL CAN STORE A VERY BIG "LOAD OF CHARGE BRIGADE"?
12. WHAT MORE DOES THE ROCKETS ND SHUTTLES NEED?
Now you should learn about Stirlling Radioisotope Thermal Generators.
Lithium Ion Batteries
NiCd batteries: rechargeables
Question: we know that cadmium stop fast neutrons and reduce it to thermal.
Now, what is the effect of neutrons with fast energies on NiCds or just CADs?
Also, what is the way to "harness" alphas to work on energizing batteries? The ruination of the flesh from alphas can be obviated if the flesh is not the object but the batteries that is not flesh. And I do not like the Borgs since they are metallic Communist.