Tuesday, April 29, 2008

NanoTX USA 2008


is the latest

you may also check up on http://www.freewebs.com/ftcuaemployment/


Begin forwarded message:
From: "nanoTX USA - Info"
Date: April 29, 2008 10:51:06 AM EDT
Subject: nanoTX USA - Call for Papers, ABSTRACTS DUE APRIL 30

nanoTX USA’08

International Nanotechnology Conference & Trade Expo

Hyatt Regency Dallas Convention Hotel, Dallas, Texas, USA, October 2-3, 2008


Call for Papers: Abstracts due April 30, 2008

Conference topics include (but are not limited to):

Track 1: Electronics & Materials

Advanced materials

Track 2: Biology & Medicine


Track 3: Energy & Environment

Solar technologies
Architecture and Smart buildings
Energy conversion and storage (fuel cells, batteries)
Environmental Health & Safety
Green nanotech

Track 4: Transportation & Security

Ground transportation
Space applications
Homeland Security

Track 5: Business & Economic Development

Commercialization issues
Growth areas/trends
Science education
Workforce development
Government regulations

Presentations should contain current results from investigations, new theories and planned investigations and be 20 minutes in length including Q&A. Additional papers may be selected for the poster session. Each confirmed speaker will receive a complimentary full conference pass (including the trade expo) and an invitation to the Nobel Laureates Legends Reception held on October 2, 2008.

To apply for the nanoTX USA’08 Call for Papers, candidates will need to submit the following information by email to papers@nanotx.biz .

Color photograph (headshot) for the website
100 word maximum biography of presenter for the website
10 word maximum speech title for the website
100 word maximum speech topic summary for the website
One page abstract (please indicate appropriate track)
Full contact information including work postal address

The nanoTX USA'08 Speaker Selection Committee will notify confirmed speakers and poster session participants by May 31, 2008.

This is information you requested. Please help us circulate where possible.
If you received this in error we are most sorry, and we sincerely believed you
wished to receive the important information. To be removed from this list, just return email and request.

Saturday, April 26, 2008

Earthquake 4/26/08


Today's Earthquake Fact
The core of the earth was the first internal structural element to be identified. In 1906 R.D. Oldham discovered the core from his studies of earthquake records. The inner core is solid, and the outer core is liquid and does not transmit the shear wave energy released during an earthquake.

You Tube



Magnetic Reversal 4/26/08











Thursday, April 24, 2008

Dr. Daniel Dingel, Engineer


Back to Earthquakes and EM Fields

Is there any relations between Earthquakes and Electromagnetic Anomalies? READ UP and We need more R&D
This is one example of agreeing to disagree.



186 Proc. Japan Acad., 75, Ser. B (1999)
Vol. 75(B),
Plasmon model for origin of earthquake related electromagnetic wave noises
By MasaShi KAMOGAWA*~'**~'t~ and Yoshi-Hiko OHTSUKI*~
(Communicated by Seiya UYEDA, M. J. A., Sept. 13, 1999)
Abstract: A theory is proposed to explain how the electromagnetic waves are created from the epi-
center of large earthquakes. By the increase of strong stress in the rock, exo-electrons are excited and emit-
ted, and bulk plasmon can be produced. They propagate to the earth surface, and transform into
electromagnetic waves. Simple order-estimation shows that the electromagnetic waves of the frequency
range 10 MHz-1 GHz may be observed. Some characteristics of observed earthquake related electromagnetic
waves may be interpreted by our plasmon model.
Key words: Earthquake; plasmon; electromagnetic wave.

Question: Where would electromagnetic reversal originate: down under in the core of the earth or up there in outer space?

Question: Is there any relationship between the incidence of solar flares and electromagnetic radiation?

Question: What type solar flares would result in electromagnetic reversal?


Friday, April 18, 2008

Scientific American, April 2008





Comb Technologies

Optical Atomic Clocks
Chemical Sensors
Designer Chemistry

Optical Frequency Combs
Mar 8, 2006 ... As scientists continue to improve frequency comb technology and make it easier to use, it may be applied in many other research fields and ...
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[PDF] PowerPoint Presentation
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Locking of femtosecond laser comb to single frequency cw laser. Nonlinear optical techniques for comb technology. Ultra-broadband mirrors and saturable ...
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[PDF] Optical and Quantum Communications
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Erich Ippen and Franz Kärtner to investigate enabling femtosecond-comb technologies with. nonlinear optical techniques. The main focus of our program is to ...
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Comb-like Profiled Fiber Technologies for Synchronized Short Pulse ...
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Global Waste Management

Begin forwarded message:

From: "The Global Waste Management Symposium"
Date: April 18, 2008 10:12:27 AM EDT
To: ftcua8@comcast.net
Subject: Announcing the Keynote Presenter
Reply-To: wastesymposium@pmedianews.com

Announcing the Keynote Speaker for the 2008 Global Waste Management Symposium: Dr. Michael J. Walsh, Executive Vice President, Chicago Climate Exchange

The Potential for National Carbon Emissions Trading to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Monday, September 8

Michael J. Walsh, Ph.D., is an Executive Vice President of Chicago Climate Exchange, Inc., a self-regulatory exchange that administers a voluntary, legally binding greenhouse gas reduction and trading program for North America. Dr. Walsh also serves on the Board of Directors of the Montreal Climate Exchange.

In his prior position with Environmental Financial Products (the predecessor company to CCX), Dr. Walsh arranged several international carbon credit transactions and served as liaison and lead writer for a series of technical papers on international emissions trading prepared for the Government of Canada. As a consultant to the U.S. Agency for International Development, Dr. Walsh provided instructional seminars on emissions trading for industry and government officials from several European countries. He has been a speaker at United Nations climate conferences at Geneva, Kyoto, Buenos Aires, Bonn and The Hague, and has been a keynote speaker at industry conferences and educational workshops around the world.

For more information on Michael J. Walsh, Ph.D., please click here.

The Global Waste Management Symposium (GWMS) will serve as a forum for the presentation of both applied and fundamental research and case studies on waste management. The GWMS will include both oral presentations and posters as well as special events to provide opportunities to share ideas and problem solve.

For more information on the Global Waste Management Symposium or to register, visit www.wastesymposium.com. Both the pre-registration deadline and hotel reservation deadline are August 11, 2008.

To date, this year’s sponsors include:



With additional support from:
Geotech Environmental Equipment, Inc.
SCS Engineers
Shaw Environmental, Inc.
Weaver Boos Consultants, LLC

View the list of tabletop sponsors

The Global Waste Management Symposium…Promoting Technology and Scientific Innovation in the Management of Solid Waste.

GWMS 2008 Strategic Partners & Media Partners
Strategic Partners:
Chicago Climate

Media Partners:

11 Riverbend Drive, Stamford, CT 06907
You received this email because you have an existing business relationship with Waste Age, WasteExpo and/or The Global Waste Management Symposium, divisions of Penton Media. Periodically, we will inform you of special Penton-related shows, products and other offers that we believe you will find helpful in your business or career. To STOP receiving promotional e-mails from The Global Waste Management Symposium and Waste Tech Landfill Technology Conference, please click here to opt-out.

Privacy Policy

Environmental Health and Safety of Different Energy Sources


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go on to page 3 ff



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.
Please improve this article if you can. (September 2006)
Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor.
"Detector" redirects here. For the radio electronics component, see Detector (radio).
"Detector" redirects here. For detector in particle physics, see Particle detector.
A sensor is a device which measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example, a mercury thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. A thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage which can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, all sensors need to be calibrated against known standards.
Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include automobiles, machines, aerospace, medicine, industry, and robotics.
A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the measured quantity changes. For instance, if the mercury in a thermometer moves 1cm when the temperature changes by 1°, the sensitivity is 1cm/1°. Sensors that measure very small changes must have very high sensitivities.
Technological progress allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a microscopic scale as microsensors using MEMS technology. In most cases, a microsensor reaches a significantly higher speed and sensitivity compared with macroscopic approaches. See also MEMS sensor generations.
Contents [hide]
1 Types
1.1 Thermal
1.2 Electromagnetic
1.3 Mechanical
1.4 Chemical
1.5 Optical radiation
1.6 Ionising radiation
1.7 Acoustic
1.8 Other types
1.8.1 Non Initialized systems
1.8.2 Initialized systems
2 Classification of measurement errors
2.1 Resolution
3 Biological sensors
4 Geodetic sensors
5 See also
6 External links

Because sensors are a type of transducer, they change one form of energy into another. For this reason, sensors can be classified according to the type of energy transfer that they detect.
temperature sensors: thermometers, thermocouples, temperature sensitive resistors (thermistors and resistance temperature detectors), bi-metal thermometers and thermostats
heat sensors: bolometer, calorimeter, heat flux sensor
electrical resistance sensors: ohmmeter, multimeter
electrical current sensors: galvanometer, ammeter
electrical voltage sensors: leaf electroscope, voltmeter
electrical power sensors: watt-hour meters
magnetism sensors: magnetic compass, fluxgate compass, magnetometer, Hall effect device
metal detectors
pressure sensors: altimeter, barometer, barograph, pressure gauge, air speed indicator, rate-of-climb indicator, variometer
gas and liquid flow sensors: flow sensor, anemometer, flow meter, gas meter, water meter, mass flow sensor
gas and liquid viscosity and density: viscometer, hydrometer, oscillating U-tube
mechanical sensors: acceleration sensor, position sensor, selsyn, switch, strain gauge
humidity sensors: hygrometer
Chemical proportion sensors: oxygen sensors, ion-selective electrodes, pH glass electrodes, redox electrodes, and carbon monoxide detectors.
[edit]Optical radiation
light time-of-flight. Used in modern surveying equipment, a short pulse of light is emitted and returned by a retroreflector. The return time of the pulse is proportional to the distance and is related to atmospheric density in a predictable way - see LIDAR.
light sensors, or photodetectors, including semiconductor devices such as photocells, photodiodes, phototransistors, CCDs, and Image sensors; vacuum tube devices like photo-electric tubes, photomultiplier tubes; and mechanical instruments such as the Nichols radiometer.
infra-red sensor, especially used as occupancy sensor for lighting and environmental controls.
proximity sensor- A type of distance sensor but less sophisticated. Only detects a specific proximity. May be optical - combination of a photocell and LED or laser. Applications in cell phones, paper detector in photocopiers, auto power standby/shutdown mode in notebooks and other devices. May employ a magnet and a Hall effect device.
scanning laser- A narrow beam of laser light is scanned over the scene by a mirror. A photocell sensor located at an offset responds when the beam is reflected from an object to the sensor, whence the distance is calculated by triangulation.
focus. A large aperture lens may be focused by a servo system. The distance to an in-focus scene element may be determined by the lens setting.
binocular. Two images gathered on a known baseline are brought into coincidence by a system of mirrors and prisms. The adjustment is used to determine distance. Used in some cameras (called range-finder cameras) and on a larger scale in early battleship range-finders
interferometry. Interference fringes between transmitted and reflected lightwaves produced by a coherent source such as a laser are counted and the distance is calculated. Capable of extremely high precision.
scintillometers measure atmospheric optical disturbances.
fiber optic sensors.
short path optical interception - detection device consists of a light-emitting diode illuminating a phototransistor, with the end position of a mechanical device detected by a moving flag intercepting the optical path, useful for determining an initial position for mechanisms driven by stepper motors.
[edit]Ionising radiation
radiation sensors: Geiger counter, dosimeter, Scintillation counter, Neutron detection
subatomic particle sensors: Particle detector, scintillator, Wire chamber, cloud chamber, bubble chamber. See Category:Particle detectors
acoustic : uses ultrasound time-of-flight echo return. Used in mid 20th century polaroid cameras and applied also to robotics. Even older systems like Fathometers (and fish finders) and other 'Tactical Active' Sonar (Sound Navigation And Ranging) systems in naval applications which mostly use audible sound frequencies.
sound sensors : microphones, hydrophones, seismometers.
[edit]Other types
motion sensors: radar gun, speedometer, tachometer, odometer, occupancy sensor, turn coordinator
orientation sensors: gyroscope, artificial horizon, ring laser gyroscope
distance sensor (noncontacting) Several technologies can be applied to sense distance: magnetostriction
[edit]Non Initialized systems
Gray code strip or wheel- a number of photodetectors can sense a pattern, creating a binary number. The gray code is a mutated pattern that ensures that only one bit of information changes with each measured step, thus avoiding ambiguities.
[edit]Initialized systems
These require starting from a known distance and accumulate incremental changes in measurements.
Quadrature wheel- A disk-shaped optical mask is driven by a gear train. Two photocells detecting light passing through the mask can determine a partial revolution of the mask and the direction of that rotation.
whisker sensor- A type of touch sensor and proximity sensor.
[edit]Classification of measurement errors

A good sensor obeys the following rules:
the sensor should be sensitive to the measured property
the sensor should be insensitive to any other property
the sensor should not influence the measured property
Ideal sensors are designed to be linear. The output signal of such a sensor is linearly proportional to the value of the measured property. The sensitivity is then defined as the ratio between output signal and measured property. For example, if a sensor measures temperature and has a voltage output, the sensitivity is a constant with the unit [V/K]; this sensor is linear because the ratio is constant at all points of measurement.
If the sensor is not ideal, several types of deviations can be observed:
The sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified. This is called a sensitivity error, but the sensor is still linear.
Since the range of the output signal is always limited, the output signal will eventually reach a minimum or maximum when the measured property exceeds the limits. The full scale range defines the maximum and minimum values of the measured property.
If the output signal is not zero when the measured property is zero, the sensor has an offset or bias. This is defined as the output of the sensor at zero input.
If the sensitivity is not constant over the range of the sensor, this is called nonlinearity. Usually this is defined by the amount the output differs from ideal behavior over the full range of the sensor, often noted as a percentage of the full range.
If the deviation is caused by a rapid change of the measured property over time, there is a dynamic error. Often, this behaviour is described with a bode plot showing sensitivity error and phase shift as function of the frequency of a periodic input signal.
If the output signal slowly changes independent of the measured property, this is defined as drift.
Long term drift usually indicates a slow degradation of sensor properties over a long period of time.
Noise is a random deviation of the signal that varies in time.
Hysteresis is an error caused by when the measured property reverses direction, but there is some finite lag in time for the sensor to respond, creating a different offset error in one direction than in the other.
If the sensor has a digital output, the output is essentially an approximation of the measured property. The approximation error is also called digitization error.
If the signal is monitored digitally, limitation of the sampling frequency also can cause a dynamic error.
The sensor may to some extent be sensitive to properties other than the property being measured. For example, most sensors are influenced by the temperature of their environment.
All these deviations can be classified as systematic errors or random errors. Systematic errors can sometimes be compensated for by means of some kind of calibration strategy. Noise is a random error that can be reduced by signal processing, such as filtering, usually at the expense of the dynamic behaviour of the sensor.
The resolution of a sensor is the smallest change it can detect in the quantity that it is measuring. Often in a digital display, the least significant digit will fluctuate, indicating that changes of that magnitude are only just resolved. The resolution is related to the precision with which the measurement is made. For example, a scanning probe (a fine tip near a surface collects an electron tunnelling current) can resolve atoms and molecules.
[edit]Biological sensors

All living organisms contain biological sensors with functions similar to those of the mechanical devices described. Most of these are specialized cells that are sensitive to:
light, motion, temperature, magnetic fields, gravity, humidity, vibration, pressure, electrical fields, sound, and other physical aspects of the external environment;
physical aspects of the internal environment, such as stretch, motion of the organism, and position of appendages (proprioception);
an enormous array of environmental molecules, including toxins, nutrients, and pheromones;
many aspects of the internal metabolic milieu, such as glucose level, oxygen level, or osmolality;
an equally varied range of internal signal molecules, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and cytokines;
and even the differences between proteins of the organism itself and of the environment or alien creatures.
Artificial sensors that mimic biological sensors by using a biological sensitive component, are called biosensors.
The human senses are examples of specialized neuronal sensors. See Sense.
[edit]Geodetic sensors

Geodetic measuring devices measure georeferenced displacements or movements in one, two or three dimensions. It includes the use of instruments such as total stations, levels and global navigation satellite system receivers.
[edit]See also

Car sensor: reversing sensor and rain sensor.
Data acquisition
Data acquisition system
Data logger
Detection theory
Fully Automatic Time
Hydrogen microsensor
Lateral line
List of sensors
Machine olfaction
Receiver operating characteristic
Sensor network
Sensor Web
[edit]External links

Look up Sensor in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Capacitive Position/Displacement Sensor Theory/Tutorial
Capacitive Position/Displacement Overview
M. Kretschmar and S. Welsby (2005), Capacitive and Inductive Displacement Sensors, in Sensor Technology Handbook, J. Wilson editor, Newnes: Burlington, MA.
C. A. Grimes, E. C. Dickey, and M. V. Pishko (2006), Encyclopedia of Sensors (10-Volume Set), American Scientific Publishers. ISBN 1-58883-056-X
SensEdu; how sensors work
Clifford K. Ho, Alex Robinson, David R. Miller and Mary J. Davis. Overview of Sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring. Sensors 2005, 5, 4-37
Wireless hydrogen sensor
Sensor circuits
Categories: Measuring instruments | Sensors | Transducers
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Image sensor
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A CCD-sensor on a flexible circut board
An image sensor is a device that converts an optical image to an electric signal. It is used mostly in digital cameras and other imaging devices. It is a set of charge-coupled devices (CCD) or CMOS sensors such as active-pixel sensors.
There are several main types of color image sensors, differing by the means of the color separation mechanism:
Bayer sensor, low-cost and most common, using a Bayer filter that passes red, green, or blue light to selected sensels, or pixels, forming interlaced grids sensitive to red, green, and blue. The image is then interpolated using a demosaicing algorithm.
Foveon X3 sensor, using an array of layered sensors where every pixel contains three stacked sensors sensitive to the individual colors.
3CCD, using three discrete image sensors, with the color separation done by a dichroic prism. Considered the best quality, and generally more expensive than single-CCD sensors.
Contents [hide]
2 Performance
3 Specialty sensors
4 See also
5 References
[edit]CCD Vs CMOS

Today, most digital still cameras use either a CCD images sensor or a CMOS sensor. Both types of sensor accomplish the same task of capturing light and converting it into electrical signals.
A CCD is an analog device. When light strikes the chip it is held as a small electrical charge in each photo sensor. The charges are converted to voltage one pixel at a time as they are read from the chip. Additional circuitry in the camera converts the voltage into digital information.
A CMOS chip is a type of active pixel sensor made using the CMOS semiconductor process. Extra circuitry next to each photo sensor converts the light energy to a voltage. Additional circuitry on the chip converts the voltage to digital data.
Neither technology has a clear advantage in image quality. CMOS can potentially be implemented with fewer components, use less power and provide data faster than CCDs. CCD is a more mature technology and is in most respects the equal of CMOS.[1] [2]

There are many parameters that can be used to evaluate the performance of an image sensor, including its dynamic range, its signal-to-noise ratio, its low-light sensitivity, etc. For a detailed guide to digital sensor performance, see Roger Clark's article.
[edit]Specialty sensors

Special sensors are used for various applications. The most important are the sensors for thermal imaging, creation of multi-spectral images, gamma cameras, sensor arrays for x-rays, IR Rays Infrared Rays and other highly sensitive arrays for astronomy.
[edit]See also

Video camera tube
Semiconductor detector
Contact Image Sensor (CIS)
Charge-coupled device (CCD)
Active pixel sensor (MOS, CMOS)
Image sensor format: discusses the sizes and shapes of common image sensors
This photography-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

^ [1] CCD Vs CMOS from Photonics Spectra 2001
^ [2] Sensors By Vincent Bockaert
Categories: Photography stubs | Digital photography | Image sensors
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Draft New Jersey Energy Master Plan Implementation Strategies


read up and send comments to ftcua8@comcast.net


1. For each energy source, are there any hazardous materials involved and the needs for interim and long term hazardous materials and waste storage facilities? sensors, monitors, detectors, alarms etc.?

2. Transportation problems

3. Labor and Material Costs

4. Which can run on batteries, generators, co-generationals, power plants?

5. Radiation, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety problems and solutions for each energy source

6. Innovations

7. Christman, Cua Associates, www.cca-reohs.com

Thursday, April 17, 2008

Science Lessons 4 4/17/08

Fire Suppression Agents


Category:Fire suppression agents
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pages in category "Fire suppression agents"

The following 31 pages are in this category, out of 31 total.
ABC Dry Chemical
Ammonium phosphate
Ammonium sulfate
Arctic Fire
Carbon dioxide
C cont.
Compressed Air Foam System
Drench additive
Fire fighting foam
Fire retardant
Fire-retardant gel
Novec 1230
Perfluorooctanoic acid
Phosphorus tribromide
Potassium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate
Categories: Fire suppression
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This page was last modified on 7 February 2008, at 14:18. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.)
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity.
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Science Lessons 3 4/17/08






Special Opportunities

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Senior Account Executive
Waggener Edstrom Worldwide
Seattle, Washington
April 16, 2008
Account Director
Waggener Edstrom Worldwide
Seattle, Washington
April 16, 2008
Senior Policy Analyst
Oregon Department of Energy
Salem, Oregon
April 16, 2008
Wilderness Medicine Instructors
Wilderness Medicine Institute
Lander, Wyoming
April 16, 2008
Project Manager for an Environmental Laboratory
STAT Analysis Corporation
Chicago, Illinois
April 15, 2008
Region 2 Manager
Oregon Parks and Recreation Department
Portland, Oregon
April 15, 2008
Downtown Greening Project Coordinator
Western Pennsylvania Conservancy
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
April 15, 2008
Stewardship Manager
Palos Verdes Peninsula Land Conservancy
Rolling Hills Estates, California
April 15, 2008
Natural Resource Environmental Regulatory Specialist
Natural Resource Group, LLC
Denver, Colorado
April 14, 2008
California Program Assistant
Union of Concerned Scientists
Berkeley, California
April 14, 2008
Program Director,
New York AmeriCorps Program
Student Conservation Association
New Paltz, New York
April 14, 2008
GIS Technician
Colorado River Indian Tribes
Parker, Arizona
April 13, 2008
Various Positions
The Great Basin Institute
April 13, 2008
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Environmental Incentives, LLC
South Lake Tahoe, California
April 11, 2008
Project Manager,
Business Development Facility Program
Forest Trends
Washington, DC
April 11, 2008
Program Associate, Tropical America Katoomba Group
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April 11, 2008
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Washington, DC
April 11, 2008
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Environmental Science Associates
Southern California
April 11, 2008
Environmental Science Associates
Southern California
April 11, 2008
Career Education Coordinator
Friends of the High School for Environmental Studies
New York City, New York
April 11, 2008
Assistant Conservation Engineer
New York Power Authority
Lewiston, New York
April 11, 2008
Member Services Coordinator
Ocean Conservancy
Washington, DC
April 11, 2008
Communications Associate (part-time)
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Millbrook, New York
April 11, 2008
BHE Environmental, Inc.
Cincinnati, Ohio
April 10, 2008
Marine Fisheries Observers
AIS, Inc.
Eastern USA
April 10, 2008
Scientist or Engineer
Washington, DC
April 9, 2008
Regional Program Manager
Land, Water, Wildlife Program
Environmental Defense Fund
Raleigh, North Carolina
April 9, 2008
AmeriCorps Positions
AmeriCorps Cape Cod
Cape Cod, Massachusetts
April 9, 2008
Executive Director
Neighborhood Energy Connection
St. Paul, Minnesota
April 9, 2008
Various Positions
Tetra Tech
Eastern and Midwestern USA
April 8, 2008
Marketing Coordinator
Clivus Multrum, Inc.
Lawrence, Massachusetts
April 8, 2008
Volunteer Coordinator
Drumlin Farm Wildlife Sanctuary
Lincoln, Massachusetts
April 8, 2008
Botany Technician (seasonal)
The Great Basin Institute
April 8, 2008
Lake Champlain Boat Launch Stewards (part-time)
New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission
New York State and Vermont
April 8, 2008
Air Quality Director
Maricopa County
Phoenix, Arizona
April 7, 2008
Non-Tenure-Track Lecturer, Environmental Policy
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, California
April 7, 2008
Supervising Systems Analyst
Bay Area Air Quality Management District
San Francisco, California
April 7, 2008
Naturalist Internship
Glen Helen Outdoor Education Center
Yellow Springs, Ohio
April 7, 2008
Teacher / Naturalist (part-time)
PUDDLESTOMPERS Nature Exploration
Greater Boston Area, Massachusetts
April 7, 2008
Online Fundraising Manager
Oakland, California
April 7, 2008
GIS Technician
'Ahakhav Tribal Preserve
Parker, Arizona
April 7, 2008
Nursery Technician
'Ahakhav Tribal Preserve
Parker, Arizona
April 7, 2008
Restoration Assistant (seasonal)
'Ahakhav Tribal Preserve
Parker, Arizona
April 7, 2008
Redding, Connecticut
April 6, 2008
Environmental Scientist/Geologist
Coneco Engineers & Scientists, Inc.
Bridgewater, Massachusetts
April 5, 2008
Associate Director, Environmental Research
Cotton Incorporated
Cary, North Carolina
April 4, 2008
Environmental and Experiential Program Coordinator
For Love of Children
Harpers Ferry, West Virginia
April 4, 2008
Leaders in the Making Program Coordinator
For Love of Children
Harpers Ferry, West Virginia
April 4, 2008
Various Positions
New York Power Authority
White Plains, New York
April 4, 2008
Associate Environmental Consultant
Natural Resource Group, LLC
Houston, Texas
April 4, 2008
Associate Consultant
Natural Resource Group, LLC
Charlotte, North Carolina
April 4, 2008
Utilities Engineers
California Public Utilities Commission
San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Sacramento, California
April 4, 2008
Outdoor Education Specialist (seasonal)
Betsy-Jeff Penn 4H Education Center
Reidsville, North Carolina
April 4, 2008
Assistant Outdoor Education Coordinator
Northern Illinois University,
Lorado Taft Campus
Oregon, Illinois
April 4, 2008
Consulting Manager
Stockton, California
April 3, 2008
Production Garden Manager (seasonal)
The FARM Institute
Edgartown, Massachusetts
April 3, 2008
Environmental Education Instructors (seasonal)
Pocono Environmental Education Center
Dingmans Ferry, Pennsylvania
April 3, 2008
Naturalist (seasonal)
Pocono Environmental Education Center
Dingmans Ferry, Pennsylvania
April 3, 2008
Education Program Leader,
Baltimore Ecosystem Study
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Baltimore, Maryland
April 3, 2008
Mesoamerica Program Manager
Southern USA
April 3, 2008
Partner Program Manager
Practice Greenhealth
Negotiable location (Arlington, Virginia)
April 2, 2008
Executive Director of Oxbow Meadows
Columbus State University
Columbus, Georgia
April 2, 2008
Executive Director
Sustainability Center of the Rockies
Carbondale, Colorado
April 2, 2008
Environmental Educators
Nature's Classroom
New York State and New England
April 2, 2008
GreenApple Corps Crew Leader (seasonal)
City of New York/Parks and Recreation
New York City, New York
April 2, 2008
Adventurous Biologists
Saltwater Inc.
April 2, 2008
Environmental Technicians and Scientists
EnviroTrac Ltd.
South Plainfield, New Jersey
April 1, 2008
Education Program Specialist (temporary)
Northern Illinois University,
Lorado Taft Campus
Oregon, Illinois
April 1, 2008
Green Sustainable Consultant/LEED Accredited Professional
Donnally Vujcic Associates, L.L.C.
Gaithersburg, Maryland
March 31, 2008
Financial Administrator
Community Car, LLC
Madison, Wisconsin
March 31, 2008
Environmental Educator and Challenge Course Facilitator
Don Lee Center
Arapahoe, North Carolina
March 31, 2008
Environmental Scientist
Whitman, Requardt and Associates, LLP
Fairfax, Virginia
March 31, 2008
Graduate Engineer
Raba-Kistner Consultants Inc.
Houston, Texas
March 31, 2008
Resident Intern for Wildlife Rehabilitation Program
Wildlife in Crisis
Weston, Connecticut
March 29, 2008
Office/Administrative Assistant
Chicago, Illinois
March 28, 2008
Manager of Engineering Program Development
Cambridge Water Department
Cambridge, Massachusetts
March 28, 2008
Air Quality Specialist I/II
Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District
Santa Barbara, California
March 28, 2008
Various Positions
Rivers Without Borders
West Coast, USA/Canada
March 28, 2008
Executive Assistant to the Development Director
Design to Win Foundation
San Francisco, California
March 27, 2008
Program Director for Water Pollution Control Training
Southern Illinois University
Edwardsville, Illinois
March 27, 2008
Environmental Manager I II
J. R. Simplot Company
Othello, Washington
March 27, 2008
Outreach Coordinator
Potomac Conservancy
Silver Spring, Maryland
March 27, 2008
Field Technicians - Pest Survey (contract)
Maryland Department of Agriculture
Prince George's County, Maryland
March 27, 2008
Sediment Expert
Ecology and Environment, Inc.
Seattle, Washington
March 27, 2008
Principal Seller Doer
Tetra Tech EC, Inc.
Boynton Beach, Florida
March 27, 2008
Summer Camp Jobs
Yawgoog Scout Reservation
Rockville, Rhode Island
March 27, 2008
Associate Attorney
Caffry & Flower
Glens Falls, New York
March 26, 2008
Outreach Associate
Network for New Energy Choices
New York City, New York
March 26, 2008
Development Director
Wallkill Valley Land Trust
New Paltz, New York
March 26, 2008
Development Associate
Dogwood Alliance
Asheville, North Carolina
March 26, 2008
Trails Specialist
Mountains to Sound Greenway Trust
Issaquah, Washington
March 26, 2008
Natural Science Educator
Gore Range Natural Science School
Avon, Colorado
March 25, 2008
Development Assistant
Environmental Advocates of NY
Albany, New York
March 25, 2008
Campaign Director - Clean Vessels Campaign
Friends of the Earth
San Francisco, California
March 25, 2008
D&D Project Manager
Performance Results Corporation
Piketon, Ohio
March 24, 2008
Executive Director
Keep North Platte & Lincoln County Beautiful
North Platte, Nebraska
March 24, 2008
Part-time Internship, Horticulture
Queens Botanical Garden
Flushing, New York
March 24, 2008
Part-time Internship, Plant Records and Interpretation
Queens Botanical Garden
Flushing, New York
March 24, 2008
Entry- and Mid-level Field Biologists
DB Environmental, Inc.
West Palm Beach, Florida
March 24, 2008
Grassroots and Online Organizer
Natural Resources Council of Maine
Augusta, Maine
March 24, 2008
Environmental Projects Manager, Telecommunications
Aarcher, Inc.
Annapolis, Maryland
March 24, 2008
Environmental Scientist
Aarcher, Inc.
Annapolis, Maryland
March 24, 2008
Science and Research Liaison
Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies
Washington, DC
March 21, 2008
Assistant Project Manager
McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry
Charlottesville, Virginia
March 21, 2008
Environmental Chemist
McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry
Charlottesville, Virginia
March 21, 2008
Environmental and Safety Compliance Specialist
Aarcher, Inc.
Englewood, Colorado
March 21, 2008
Dorm Counselors (seasonal)
Glen Helen Ecocamps
Yellow Springs, Ohio
March 21, 2008
Energy and Environment Project Coordinator
Triangle J Council of Governments
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
March 21, 2008
Interpretive Program Manager
International Crane Foundation
Baraboo, Wisconsin
March 21, 2008
International Crane Foundation
Baraboo, Wisconsin
March 21, 2008
Senior Development Associate,
Online Donor Cultivation and Solicitation
Oakland, California
March 21, 2008
Bird Banding Intern
Sharon Audubon Center
Sharon, Connecticut
March 21, 2008
Environmental Educator, Summer Season
Upham Woods Outdoor Learning Center
Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin
March 20, 2008
Principal Biologist and Project Ecologist
URS Corporation
Portland, Oregon
March 19, 2008
Restoration Field Crew Member
Applied Ecological Services, Inc.
Brodhead, Wisconsin
March 19, 2008
Conference Coordinator
Northern Illinois University,
Lorado Taft Field Campus
Oregon, Illinois
March 19, 2008
Seafood Program Director
Blue Ocean Institute
East Norwich, New York
March 19, 2008
Seafood Research Associate
Blue Ocean Institute
East Norwich, New York
March 19, 2008
Project Leader, Fire Education Teams (seasonal)
Student Conservation Association
Bakersfield/Escondido/Hemet, California
March 19, 2008
Detroit Crew Leaders (seasonal)
Student Conservation Association
Detroit, Michigan
March 19, 2008
Senior Water Resources Specialist
Broward County Florida Environmental Protection Department
Plantation, Florida
March 18, 2008
Forest Conservation Specialist
Western Pennsylvania Conservancy
Ridgway, Pennsylvania
March 18, 2008
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Begin forwarded message:
From: NCER_listserver@saic.com
Date: April 17, 2008 1:25:29 PM EDT
To: ftcua8@comcast.net
Subject: EPA to Host Earth Day Meeting on Sustainability Projects


EPA to Host Earth Day Meeting on Sustainability Projects

April 22-23, Washington, D.C.

(Washington, D.C., – April 17, 2008) Scientists and engineers supported by
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Collaborative Science and
Technology Network for Sustainability (CNS) program are meeting April 22-23 at
the Grand Hyatt Hotel and in EPA offices in Washington, D.C., to solicit input
and share early progress on their projects. In addition, there will be
interagency panel discussions on broad sustainability themes — energy and
aterials; water and land use; and getting to shared information.

The CNS grantees approach sustainability from many diverse perspectives,
including land use options that best protect water quality; the symbiotic
reuse and recycling of materials by an industrial network within a region; and
regional energy generation and conservation options that best protect air
quality and mitigate climate change.

"The CNS program is helping us to better translate the concept of
sustainability into science that informs practical action," said Dr. William
Sanders, director of EPA's National Center for Environmental Research.

In all cases, multi-disciplinary science and engineering investigators have
teamed with diverse decision-makers in the public and/or private sectors to
systemically understand regional problems and develop creative solutions that
address environmental, economic, and social dimensions.

This event is being held in partnership with the National Sustainable Design
Expo featuring EPA’s People, Prosperity, and Planet (P3) award. Both events
are free and open to the public.

More information on the CNS workshop:

More information on the CNS projects:

More information on the Collaborative Science and Technology Network For
Sustainability: http://www.epa.gov/ncer/cns/

More information on P3 and the National Sustainable Design Expo:

Members of this list are encouraged to use the Web interface at:
http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_list/elists to unsubscribe to this list or
subscribe to other lists available on NCER.




With so many fire extinguishers to choose from, selecting the proper one for your home can be a daunting task. Everyone should have at least one fire extinguisher at home, but it's just as important to ensure you have the proper type of fire extinguisher. Fire protection experts recommend one for the kitchen, the garage and workshop.

Fire extinguishers are divided into four categories, based on different types of fires. Each fire extinguisher also has a numerical rating that serves as a guide for the amount of fire the extinguisher can handle. The higher the number, the more fire-fighting power. The following is a quick guide to help choose the right type of extinguisher.

Class A extinguishers are for ordinary combustible materials such as paper, wood, cardboard, and most plastics. The numerical rating on these types of extinguishers indicates the amount of water it holds and the amount of fire it can extinguish.
Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, grease and oil. The numerical rating for class B extinguishers indicates the approximate number of square feet of fire it can extinguish.
Class C fires involve electrical equipment, such as appliances, wiring, circuit breakers and outlets. Never use water to extinguish class C fires - the risk of electrical shock is far too great! Class C extinguishers do not have a numerical rating. The C classification means the extinguishing agent is non-conductive.
Class D fire extinguishers are commonly found in a chemical laboratory. They are for fires that involve combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium. These types of extinguishers also have no numerical rating, nor are they given a multi-purpose rating - they are designed for class D fires only.

Some fires may involve a combination of these classifications. Your fire extinguishers should have ABC ratings on them.

Here are the most common types of fire extinguishers:

Water extinguishers or APW extinguishers (air-pressurized water) are suitable for class A fires only. Never use a water extinguisher on grease fires, electrical fires or class D fires - the flames will spread and make the fire bigger! Water extinguishers are filled with water and pressurized with oxygen. Again - water extinguishers can be very dangerous in the wrong type of situation. Only fight the fire if you're certain it contains ordinary combustible materials only.
Dry chemical extinguishers come in a variety of types and are suitable for a combination of class A, B and C fires. These are filled with foam or powder and pressurized with nitrogen.
BC - This is the regular type of dry chemical extinguisher. It is filled with sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate. The BC variety leaves a mildly corrosive residue which must be cleaned immediately to prevent any damage to materials.
ABC - This is the multipurpose dry chemical extinguisher. The ABC type is filled with monoammonium phosphate, a yellow powder that leaves a sticky residue that may be damaging to electrical appliances such as a computer
Dry chemical extinguishers have an advantage over CO2 extinguishers since they leave a non-flammable substance on the extinguished material, reducing the likelihood of re-ignition.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) extinguishers are used for class B and C fires. CO2 extinguishers contain carbon dioxide, a non-flammable gas, and are highly pressurized. The pressure is so great that it is not uncommon for bits of dry ice to shoot out the nozzle. They don't work very well on class A fires because they may not be able to displace enough oxygen to put the fire out, causing it to re-ignite.

CO2 extinguishers have an advantage over dry chemical extinguishers since they don't leave a harmful residue - a good choice for an electrical fire on a computer or other favorite electronic device such as a stereo or TV.

It is vital to know what type of extinguisher you are using. Using the wrong type of extinguisher for the wrong type of fire can be life-threatening.
These are only the common types of fire extinguishers. There are many others to choose from. Base your selection on the classification and the extinguisher's compatibility with the items you wish to protect.

See our latest articles:

Arson Statistics: Who is setting the fires and how often does arson occur? new
Top Key Tips to Filing a Fire Insurance Claim
Holiday Fire Safety
Fire Safe Cigarettes Save Lives
Understanding Electrical Fire Safety
Wildfire Prevention Tips: Protect your Home and Property
Wood Fire Safety 101

Fire Extinguisher Types | Using a Fire Extinguisher | Firefighting Tips | Fire Hazards
How Fire Extinguishers Work | Resources | Site Map





reminder: http://ftcuapublications.blogspot.com--TODAY, LESSON 1, 4/17/08



Begin forwarded message:
From: "Florence T. Cua"
Date: April 17, 2008 7:48:25 AM EDT
To: hr@dls.com.ph
Cc: Carmelito Tatlonghari
Subject: Fwd: Perhaps these will interest you...Thanks, Lorenzo Cua and Jeffrey Gan, my webpage developers and of course Dr. Edward Arthur Christman

Geographical Information Systems
Geophysical Positioning Systems

Begin forwarded message:
From: Florence T. Cua
Date: April 16, 2008 6:15:21 PM EDT
To: drit_vvcruz@yahoo.com, plicuanan@yahoo.com, j gan , Rosario Velasquez , Leah Tolosa , karina milagros cui , Maui Arroyo , Maria Natalia Dimaano , Gloria Despacio-Reyes , d_chemist01@yahoo.com, Rigoberto Advincula , grmco@comcast.net, "Jean ((NIH/NINDS)) [F] Tiong" , blessie basilia , Reynaldo Vea , adrian casano , cgoh@chem.utoronto.ca, Roberto Ramos , Jose Tanchoco , Joseph Tan , jchun@alliancetechgroup.com, evelyn flordelis , luli_arroyo@yahoo.com, franco_teves@yahoo.com, mario@mdli.com, Jessie , dcrispin@gmail.com, aznhunnee1@aol.com, francis_cua@yahoo.com, KiM de leon , Liberty de Leon , camachogurl65@yahoo.com, petitexpinay@yahoo.com, janis_qua@yahoo.com, aamorales@gmail.com, ppsaligan@yahoo.com, cynthiapicazo@gmail.com, rosalinda.medinarupel@cliffordchance.com, Oliver Flores , Yoly Ilagan , Danilo Romero , carlo.arcilla@up.edu.ph, Grace Stanley , CHS LSL , potsypot@yahoo.com, alardi4@yahoo.com, ceswright@yahoo.com, newyork@pcgny.net, Benito De Lumen , "Victoria P. AC GARCHITORENA" , Raymond Tan , ancilleelvena@yahoo.com, glennmar@shu.edu, Alvin Culaba , elbert.regacho@gsa.gov, stephen_cua@yahoo.com, bernardqua@msn.com, Felixberto Buot , Janet Bandows Koster , awis cjc , madelsituico@yahoo.com, ajli@learnlink.emory.edu, cbmuller@mentornet.net, "Hillary R. Clinton" , Samantha Maltzman , Nancy Jacobson , tperrette@sarnoff.com, ccbernido@pnri.dost.gov.ph, tvleonin@pnri.dost.gov.ph
Cc: Edward Christman
Subject: Perhaps these will interest you...Thanks, Lorenzo Cua and Jeffrey Gan, my webpage developers and of course Dr. Edward Arthur Christman

I started the literature reviews and lab researches( most were grant funded and more) which are to be found in









from blank to 17 after employment

These are compilations

United Nations Jobs


note: Chronicle for Higher Education


Science Careers




Job Circle



from blank to 11 after usgrantsgov

Philippine American Academy of Sciences and Engineering(PAASE)



These topics are:

1. Batteries

2. Generators

3. Energy Sources

4. Sensors, Monitors, Detectors

5. Radiation, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety(REOHS)










6. National Aeronautics and Space Agency(NASA)


International Space Station


7. National Space Society(NSS)



8. Planetary Society


9. Money Making Ventures

a) Upromise http://www.upromise.com

b) http://www.freewebs.com/ftcua/surveys.htm

c) http://www.freewebs.com/ftcua/tempagencies.htm

d) http://www.findcash.com

e) Freebies

f) Home Based Businesses http://www.freewebs.com/ftcua2/

g) Writing chapters, books and grants with the R&D groups

suggestion: check out


and http://www.grants.gov

h) consulting in REOHS

10. Dental Research and Development

Radionuclides and Elements in Teeth and Bones



Hazard Surveys of Dental, Veterinary, and Cabinet X-ray Machines

11. Pontifical Academy of Sciences-none of us are there


12. Christman, Cua Associates


13. Biotechnology



14. Nanotechnology



15. Environmental


Ecology 101


16. Publications online




17. Solar Researches


18. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration(NOAA), Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration(PAGASA), Federal Laboratories of the USA plus budgets

note: Physics Today, April 2008, USDOE budget 2007 actual, 2008 and 2009 estimated

19. Nobel Prize


the above is a partial list...

read up!!! just do not mess with me!!! or mess with me at your own risk!!!

Dr. Florence T. Cua-Christman, MS3, PhD

IAEA expert for the Republic of the Marshall Islands(helped made it one IAEA member after UN membership), People's Republic of China--Radiation Protection-Health Physics, Balik Scientist Philippine Nuclear Research Institute(PNRI),

also, US Civilian Research and Development Foundation(USCRDF) gave me honorarium for 4 out of 7 grant proposals I reviewed for them...

consultant, Hybridigm Consulting-Phillippine Biotech

will the anti nuke refrain from killing the pro nuke until such time as it is deem absolutely necessary--is that what happened to the PNPP-1?

is that hanging yourself on a noose?

perhaps IAEA should ponder the problems that exists with the anti-nukes vs. pro-nukes


place this over the rest



Jeffrey, if you cannot work for me, recommend another person or train her/him...

Battery (electricity)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Battery.

Various batteries (clockwise from bottom left): two 9-volt, two AA, one D, a handheld ham radio battery, a cordless phone battery, a camcorder battery, one C, and two AAA.
In electronics, a battery is two or more electrochemical cells[1] connected in series which store chemical energy and make it available as electrical energy. Common usage has evolved to include a single electrical cell in the definition.[2] There are many types of electrochemical cells, including galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, fuel cells, flow cells, and voltaic piles.[3] A battery's characteristics may vary due to many factors including internal chemistry, current drain, and temperature.
One common division of batteries distinguishes two types: primary (disposable) and secondary (rechargeable). Primary batteries are designed to be used once only because they use up their chemicals in an effectively irreversible reaction. Secondary batteries can be recharged because the chemical reactions they use are reversible; they are recharged by running a charging current through the battery, but in the opposite direction of the discharge current.[4] Secondary, also called rechargeable batteries can be charged and discharged many times before wearing out. After wearing out some batteries can be recycled.[5]
Although an early form of battery may have been used in antiquity, the modern development of batteries started with the Voltaic pile, invented by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800. Since then, batteries have gained popularity as they became portable and useful for many purposes.[6] The widespread use of batteries has created many environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution.[7] Many reclamation companies recycle batteries to reduce the number of batteries going into landfills.[8]
Contents [hide]
1 History
2 How batteries work
3 Classification of batteries
3.1 Disposable and rechargeable
3.1.1 Disposable
3.1.2 Rechargeable Flow batteries
3.2 Homemade cells
3.3 Battery packs
3.4 Traction batteries
4 Battery capacity and discharging
5 Battery lifetime
5.1 Life of primary batteries
5.2 Life of rechargeable batteries
5.3 Extending battery life
6 Problems with batteries
6.1 Battery hazards
6.2 Environmental concerns
7 Development
8 See also
9 References
9.1 Notes
9.2 Further reading
10 External links

Volta realized that the frog's moist tissues could be replaced by cardboard soaked in salt water, and the frog's muscular response could be replaced by another form of electrical detection. He already had studied the electrostatic phenomenon of capacitance, which required measurements of electric charge and of electrical potential. Building on this experience Volta was able to detect electric current flow through his system, now called a voltaic cell, or cell for short. The terminal voltage of a cell that is not discharging is called its electromotive force (emf), and has the same unit as electrical potential, named (voltage) and measured in volts, in honor of Volta. In 1799, Volta invented the battery by placing many voltaic cells in series, literally piling them one above the other. This Voltaic Pile gave a greatly enhanced net emf for the combination,[9] with a voltage of about 50 volts for a 32-cell pile.[10] In many parts of Europe batteries continue to be called piles.
Unfortunately, Volta did not appreciate that the voltage was due to chemical reactions. He thought that his cells were an inexhaustible source of energy, and that the associated chemical effects (e.g. corrosion) were a mere nuisance, rather than, as Michael Faraday showed around 1830, an unavoidable consequence of their operation.
Early batteries were of great value for experimental purposes, their limitations made them impractical for large current drain. Later, starting with the Daniell cell in 1836, batteries provided more reliable currents and were adopted by industry for use in stationary devices, particularly in telegraph networks where they were the only practical source of electricity, since electrical distribution networks did not exist then.[11] These wet cells used liquid electrolytes, which were prone to leaks and spillage if not handled correctly. Many used glass jars to hold their components, which made them fragile. These characteristics made wet cells unsuitable for portable appliances. Near the end of the 19th century, the invention of dry cell batteries, which replaced liquid electrolyte with a paste made portable electrical devices practical.
The battery has since become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales annually.[12]
[edit]How batteries work

Main article: Electrochemical cell

A voltaic cell for demonstration purposes. In this example the two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge separator that permits the transfer of ions, but not water molecules.
A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy.[13] It consists of one or more voltaic cells. Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte. One half-cell is the positive electrode, and the other is the negative electrode. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte, which can be either solid or liquid.[14] In many cells the materials are enclosed in a container, and a separator, which is porous to the electrolyte, prevents the electrodes from coming into contact.
Each half cell has an electromotive force (or emf), determined by its ability to drive electric current from the interior to the exterior of the cell. The net emf of the battery is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells, as first recognized by Volta.[15] Thus, if the electrodes have emfs and , then the net emf is . (Hence, two identical electrodes and a common electrolyte give zero net emf.)
The electrical potential difference, or across the terminals of a battery is known as its terminal voltage, and is measured in volts.[16] The terminal voltage of a battery that is neither charging nor discharging is called the open-circuit voltage, and equals the emf of the battery. Because of internal resistance[17], the terminal voltage of a battery that is discharging is smaller in magnitude than the open-circuit voltage, and the terminal voltage of a battery that is charging exceeds the open-circuit voltage.[18] An ideal battery has negligible internal resistance, so it would always have a terminal voltage of . This means that to produce a potential difference of 1.5 V, chemical reactions inside would do 1.5 J of work for a charge of 1 C.[16]
The voltage developed across a cell's terminals depends on the chemicals used in it and their concentrations. For example, alkaline and carbon-zinc cells both measure about 1.5 volts, due to the energy release of the associated chemical reactions.[19] Because of the high electrochemical potential changes in the reactions of lithium compounds, lithium cells can provide as much as 3 volts or more.[20]
[edit]Classification of batteries

[edit]Disposable and rechargeable

From top to bottom: Two button cells, a 9-volt PP3 battery, an AAA battery, an AA battery, a C battery, a D battery, a large 3R12.
Batteries are usually divided into two broad classes:
Primary batteries irreversibly transform chemical energy to electrical energy. When the initial supply of reactants is exhausted, energy cannot be readily restored to the battery by electrical means.[21]
Secondary batteries can be recharged, that is, have their chemical reactions reversed by supplying electrical energy to the cell, restoring their original composition.[22]
Historically, some types of primary batteries used, for example, for telegraph circuits, were restored to operation by replacing the components of the battery consumed by the chemical reaction. Secondary batteries are not indefinitely rechargeable due to dissipation of the active materials, loss of electrolyte, and internal corrosion.
From a user's viewpoint, at least, batteries can be generally divided into two main types: non-rechargeable (disposable) and rechargeable. Each type is in wide usage, as each has its own advantages.[23]
Disposable batteries are also called primary cells, are intended to be used once and discarded. These are most commonly used in portable devices with either low current drain, only used intermittently, or used well away from an alternative power source. Primary cells were also commonly used for alarm and communication circuits where other electric power was only intermittently available. Primary cells cannot be reliably recharged, since the chemical reactions are not easily reversible and active materials may not return to their original forms. Battery manufacturers recommend against attempting to recharge primary cells, although some electronics enthusiasts claim it is possible to do so using a special type of charger.[24]
By contrast, rechargeable batteries or secondary cells can be re-charged by applying electrical current, which reverses the chemical reactions that occur in use. Devices to supply the appropriate current are called chargers or rechargers.
The oldest form of rechargeable battery still in modern usage is the "wet cell" lead-acid battery.[25] This battery is notable in that it contains a liquid in an unsealed container, requiring that the battery be kept upright and the area be well ventilated to ensure safe dispersal of the hydrogen gas produced by these batteries during overcharging. The lead-acid battery is also very heavy for the amount of electrical energy it can supply. Despite this, its low manufacturing cost and its high surge current levels make its use common where a large capacity (over approximately 10Ah) is required or where the weight and ease of handling are not concerns.
A common form of lead-acid battery is the modern wet-cell car battery. This can deliver about 10,000 watts of power for a short period, and has a peak current output that varies from 450 to 1100 amperes. An improved type of liquid electrolyte battery is the sealed valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery, popular in automotive industry as a replacement for the lead-acid wet cell, as well as in many lower capacity roles including smaller vehicles and stationary applications such as emergency lighting and alarm systems. The one-way pressure activated valve eliminates electrolyte evaporation while allowing out-gassing to prevent rupture. This greatly improves resistance to damage from vibration and heat. VRLA batteries have the electrolyte immobilized, usually by one of two means:
Gel batteries (or "gel cell") contain a semi-solid electrolyte to prevent spillage.
Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) batteries absorb the electrolyte in a special fiberglass matting
Other portable rechargeable batteries include several "dry cell" types, which are sealed units and are therefore useful in appliances like mobile phones and laptops. Cells of this type (in order of increasing power density and cost) include nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), and lithium-ion (Li-Ion) cells.
Recent developments include batteries with embedded functionality such as USBCELL, with a built-in charger and USB connector within the AA format, enabling the battery to be charged by plugging into a USB port without a charger,[26] and low self-discharge (LSD) mix chemistries such as Hybrio,[27] ReCyko,[28] and Eneloop,[29] where cells are precharged prior to shipping.
Not designed to be rechargeable - sometimes called "primary cells". "Disposable" may also imply that special disposal procedures must take place for proper disposal according to regulation, depending on battery type.
Zinc-carbon battery: mid cost, used in light drain applications.
Zinc-chloride battery: similar to zinc-carbon but slightly longer life.
Alkaline battery: alkaline/manganese "long life" batteries widely used in both light-drain and heavy-drain applications.
Silver-oxide battery: commonly used in hearing aids, watches, and calculators.
Lithium Iron Disulfide battery: commonly used in digital cameras. Sometimes used in watches and computer clocks. Very long life (up to ten years in wristwatches) and capable of delivering high currents but expensive. Will operate in sub-zero temperatures.
Lithium-Thionyl Chloride battery: used in industrial applications, including computers, electric meters and other devices which contain volatile memory circuits and act as a "carryover" voltage to maintain the memory in the event of a main power failure. Other applications include providing power for wireless gas and water meters. The cells are rated at 3.6 Volts and come in 1/2AA, AA, 2/3A, A, C, D & DD sizes. They are relatively expensive, but have a long shelf life, losing less than 10% of their capacity in ten years.[30]
Mercury battery: formerly used in digital watches, radio communications, and portable electronic instruments. Manufactured only for specialist applications due to toxicity.
Zinc-air battery: commonly used in hearing aids.
Thermal battery: high-temperature reserve. Almost exclusively military applications.
Water-activated battery: used for radiosondes and emergency applications.
Nickel Oxyhydroxide battery: Ideal for applications that use bursts of high current, such as digital cameras. They will last two times longer than alkaline batteries in digital cameras.[31]
Paper battery: In August 2007, a research team at RPI (led by Drs. Robert Linhardt, Pulickel M. Ajayan, and Omkaram Nalamasu) developed a paper battery with aligned carbon nanotubes, designed to function as both a lithium-ion battery and a supercapacitor, using ionic liquid, essentially a liquid salt, as electrolyte. The sheets can be rolled, twisted, folded, or cut into numerous shapes with no loss of integrity or efficiency, or stacked, like printer paper (or a voltaic pile), to boost total output. As well, they can be made in a variety of sizes, from postage stamp to broadsheet. Their light weight and low cost make them attractive for portable electronics, aircraft, and automobiles, while their ability to use electrolytes in blood make them potentially useful for medical devices such as pacemakers. In addition, they are biodegradable, unlike most other disposable cells.[32][33]

A rechargeable lithium polymer Nokia mobile phone battery.
Main articles: Rechargeable battery and Battery charger
Also known as secondary batteries or accumulators. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association has estimated that U.S. demand for rechargeables is growing twice as fast as demand for non-rechargeables. [34] There are a few main types:
Nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd): Best used for motorized equipment and other high-discharge, short-term devices. NiCd batteries can withstand even more drain than NiMH; however, the mAh rating is not high enough to keep a device running for very long, and the memory effect is far more severe.[35]
Nickel-metal hydride battery (NiMH): Best used for high-tech devices. NiMH batteries can last up to four times longer than alkaline batteries because NiMH can withstand high current for a long while.[36]
Rechargeable alkaline battery: Uses similar chemistry as non-rechargeable alkaline batteries and are best suited for similar applications. Additionally, they hold their charge for years, unlike NiCd and NiMH batteries.[37]
[edit]Flow batteries
Flow batteries are a special class of rechargeable battery where additional quantities of electrolyte are stored outside the main power cell of the battery, and circulated through it by pumps or by movement.[38] Flow batteries can have extremely large capacities and are used in marine applications and are gaining popularity in grid energy storage applications.
Zinc-bromine[38] and vanadium redox batteries are typical examples of commercially available flow batteries.
[edit]Homemade cells
Almost any liquid or moist object that has enough ions to be electrically conductive can serve as the electrolyte for a cell. As a novelty or science demonstration, it is possible to insert two electrodes made of different metals into a lemon,[39] potato,[40] et cetera and generate small amounts of electricity. "Two-potato clocks" are also widely available in hobby and toy stores; they consist of a pair of cells, each consisting of a potato (lemon, et cetera) with two electrodes inserted into it, wired in series to form a battery with enough voltage to power a digital clock.[41] Homemade cells of this kind are of no real practical use, because they produce far less current—and cost far more per unit of energy generated—than commercial cells, due to the need for frequent replacement of the fruit or vegetable. In addition, one can make a voltaic pile from two coins (such as a nickel and a penny) and a piece of paper towel dipped in salt water. Such a pile would make very little voltage itself, but when many of them are stacked together in series, they can replace normal batteries for a short amount of time.[42]
Sony has developed a biologically friendly battery that generates electricity from sugar in a way that is similar to the processes observed in living organisms. The battery generates electricity through the use of enzymes that break down carbohydrates, which are essentially sugar.[43]
Lead acid cells can easily be manufactured at home, but a tedious charge/discharge cycle is needed to 'form' the plates. This is a process whereby lead sulfate forms on the plates, and during charge is converted to lead dioxide (positive plate) and pure lead (negative plate). Repeating this process results in a microscopically rough surface, with far greater surface area being exposed. This increases the current the cell can deliver. For an example, see [1].
Daniell cells are also easy to make at home. Aluminum-air batteries can also be produced with high purity aluminum. Aluminum foil batteries will produce some electricity, but they are not very efficient, in part because a significant amount of hydrogen gas is produced.
[edit]Battery packs
Main article: Battery pack
The cells in a battery can be connected in parallel, series, or in both. A parallel combination of cells has the same voltage as a single cell, but can supply a higher current (the sum of the currents from all the cells). A series combination has the same current rating as a single cell but its voltage is the sum of the voltages of all the cells. Most practical electrochemical batteries, such as 9-volt flashlight batteries and 12-volt automobile batteries, have several cells connected in series inside the casing.[44] Parallel arrangements suffer from the problem that, if one cell discharges faster than its neighbour, current will flow from the full cell to the empty cell, wasting power and possibly causing overheating. Even worse, if one cell becomes short-circuited due to an internal fault, its neighbour will be forced to discharge its maximum current into the faulty cell, leading to overheating and possibly explosion.[45] Cells in parallel are therefore usually fitted with an electronic circuit to protect them against these problems. In both series and parallel types, the energy stored in the battery is equal to the sum of the energies stored in all the cells.
[edit]Traction batteries
Main article: Traction battery
Traction batteries are high-power batteries designed to provide propulsion to move a vehicle, such as an electric car or tow motor. A major design consideration is power to weight ratio since the vehicle must carry the battery.[46] While conventional lead acid batteries[47] with liquid electrolyte have been used, gelled electrolyte[48] and AGM-type[49] can also be used, especially in smaller sizes.
The largest installations of batteries for propulsion of vehicles are found in submarines, although the toxic gas produced by seawater contact with acid electrolyte is a considerable hazard.
Battery types commercially used in electric vehicles include
lead-acid battery, which uses lead(IV) oxide (PbO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4)[50]
flooded type with liquid electrolyte
AGM-type (Absorbed Glass Mat)
Zebra Na/NiCl2 battery operating at 270 °C requiring cooling in case of temperature excursions
NiZn battery (higher cell voltage 1.6 V and thus 25% increased specific energy, very short lifespan)
See also: battery electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicle.
[edit]Battery capacity and discharging

A device to check the charge of batteries
The more electrolyte and electrode material there is in the cell, the greater the capacity of the cell. Thus a small cell has less capacity than a larger cell, given the same chemistry (e.g. alkaline cells), though they develop the same open-circuit voltage.[51]
Because of the chemical reactions within the cells, the capacity of a battery depends on the discharge conditions such as the magnitude of the current, the duration of the current, the allowable terminal voltage of the battery, temperature, and other factors.[51]
The available capacity of a battery depends upon the rate at which it is discharged.[52] If a battery is discharged at a relatively high rate, the available capacity will be lower than expected.
The battery capacity that battery manufacturers print on a battery is the product of 20 hours multiplied by the maximum constant current that a new battery can supply for 20 hours at 68 F° (20 C°),[53] down to a predetermined terminal voltage per cell.
A battery rated at 100 A·h will deliver 5 A over a 20 hour period at room temperature. However, if it is instead discharged at 50 A, it will run out of charge before the theoretically expected 2 hours.
For this reason, a battery capacity rating is always related to an expected discharge duration—the standard duration is 20 hours.

CBatt is the battery capacity (typically given in mAh).
I is the current drawn from battery (mA).
h is the amount of time (in hours) that a battery can sustain.
The relationship between current, discharge time, and capacity for a lead acid battery is expressed by Peukert's law. The efficiency of a battery is different at different discharge rates. When discharging at low rate, the battery's energy is delivered more efficiently than at higher discharge rates.
In general, the higher the ampere-hour rating, the longer the battery will last for a certain load. Installing batteries with different A·h ratings will not affect the operation of a device rated for a specific voltage unless the load limits of the battery are exceeded. Theoretically, a battery would operate at its A·h rating, but realistically, high-drain loads like digital cameras can result in lower actual energy, most notably for alkaline batteries.[23] For example, a battery rated at 2000 mAh may not sustain a current of 1 A for the full two hours.
Typical alkaline battery sizes and capacities[54] (at lowest discharge rates)
Diagram Size Capacity (mAh) Voltage ANSI/NEDA IEC Diam. (mm) Mass (g) Height (mm) Length (mm) Width (mm)
AAAA 625 1.5 25A LR8D425 8.3 6.5 42.5 cylindrical cylindrical
N 1000 1.5 910A LR1 12 9 30.2 cylindrical cylindrical
AAA 1250 1.5 24A LR03 10.5 11.5 44.5 cylindrical cylindrical
AA 2850 1.5 15A LR6 14.5 23 50.5 cylindrical cylindrical
J 625 6 1412A 4LR61 prismatic 30 48.5 35.6 9.18
9V 625 9 1604A 6LR61 prismatic 45.6 48.5 26.5 17.5
C 8350 1.5 14A LR14 26.2 66.2 50 cylindrical cylindrical
D 20500 1.5 13A LR20 34.2 148 61.5 cylindrical cylindrical
Lantern 26000 6 915A 4R25Y prismatic 885 112 68.2 68.2
Lantern 26000 6 908A 4LR25X prismatic 885 115 68.2 68.2
Lantern 52000 6 918A 4LR25-2 prismatic 1900 127 136.5 73
Discharging performance of all batteries drops at low temperature.[55]
[edit]Battery lifetime

[edit]Life of primary batteries
Even if never taken out of the original package, disposable (or "primary") batteries can lose 8 to 20 percent of their original charge every year at a temperature of about 20°–30°C.[56] This is known as the "self discharge" rate and is due to non-current-producing "side" chemical reactions, which occur within the cell even if no load is applied to it. The rate of the side reactions is reduced if the batteries are stored at low temperature, although some batteries can be damaged by freezing. High or low temperatures may reduce battery performance. This will affect the initial voltage of the battery. For an AA alkaline battery this initial voltage is approximately normally distributed around 1.6 volts.
[edit]Life of rechargeable batteries
Rechargeable batteries traditionally self-discharge more rapidly than disposable alkaline batteries; up to three percent a day (depending on temperature). However, modern Lithium designs have reduced the self-discharge rate to a relatively low level (but still poorer than for primary batteries). Due to their poor shelf life, rechargeable batteries should not be stored and then relied upon to power flashlights or radios in an emergency. For this reason, it is a good idea to keep alkaline batteries on hand. NiCd Batteries are almost always "dead" when purchased, and must be charged before first use.
Although rechargeable batteries may be refreshed by charging, they still suffer degradation through usage. Low-capacity Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries (1700-2000 mAh) can be charged for about 1000 cycles, whereas high capacity NiMH batteries (above 2500 mAh) can be charged for about 500 cycles.[57] Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries tend to be rated for 1,000 cycles before their internal resistance increases beyond usable values. Normally a fast charge, rather than a slow overnight charge, will result in a shorter battery lifespan.[57] However, if the overnight charger is not "smart" (i.e. it cannot detect when the battery is fully charged), then overcharging is likely, which will damage the battery.[58] Degradation usually occurs because electrolyte migrates away from the electrodes or because active material falls off the electrodes. NiCd batteries suffer the drawback that they should be fully discharged before recharge. Without full discharge, crystals may build up on the electrodes, thus decreasing the active surface area and increasing internal resistance. This decreases battery capacity and causes the dreaded "memory effect". These electrode crystals can also penetrate the electrolyte separator, thereby causing shorts. NiMH, although similar in chemistry, does not suffer from "memory effect" to quite this extent.[59]
Automotive lead-acid rechargeable batteries have a much harder life. Because of vibration, shock, heat, cold, and sulfation of their lead plates, few automotive batteries last beyond six years of regular use. Automotive starting batteries have many thin plates to provide as much current as possible in a reasonably small package. Typically they are only drained a small amount before recharge. Care should be taken to avoid deep discharging a starting battery, since each charge and discharge cycle causes active material to be shed from the plates. Hole formation in the plates leads to less surface area for the current-producing chemical reactions, resulting in less available current when under load. Leaving a lead-acid battery in a deeply discharged state for any significant length of time allows the lead sulfate to crystallize, making it difficult or impossible to remove during the charging process. This can result in a permanent reduction in the available plate surface, and therefore reduced current output and energy capacity.
"Deep-Cycle" lead-acid batteries such as those used in electric golf carts have much thicker plates to aid their longevity. The main benefit of the lead-acid battery is its low cost; the main drawbacks are its large size and weight for a given capacity and voltage. Lead-acid batteries should never be discharged to below 20% of their full capacity, because internal resistance will cause heat and damage when they are recharged. Deep-cycle lead-acid systems often use a low-charge warning light or a low-charge power cut-off switch to prevent the type of damage that will shorten the battery's life.
Special "reserve" batteries intended for long storage in emergency equipment or munitions keep the electrolyte of the battery separate from the plates until the battery is activated, allowing the cells to be filled with the electrolyte. Shelf times for such batteries can be years or decades. However, their construction is more expensive than more common forms.
[edit]Extending battery life
Battery life can be extended by storing the batteries at a low temperature, as in a refrigerator or freezer, because the chemical reactions in the batteries are slower. Such storage can extend the life of alkaline batteries by ~5%; while the charge of rechargeable batteries can be extended from a few days up to several months.[60] In order to reach their maximum voltage, batteries must be returned to room temperature; therefore, alkaline battery manufacturers like Duracell do not recommend refrigerating or freezing batteries.[61]
[edit]Problems with batteries

[edit]Battery hazards
A battery explosion is caused by the misuse or malfunction of a battery, such as attempting to recharge a primary (non-rechargeable) battery,[62] or short circuiting a battery.[63] With car batteries, explosions are most likely to occur when a short circuit generates very large currents. In addition, car batteries liberate hydrogen when they are overcharged (because of electrolysis of the water in the electrolyte). Normally the amount of overcharging is very small, as is the amount of explosive gas developed, and the gas dissipates quickly. However, when "jumping" a car battery, the high current can cause the rapid release of large volumes of hydrogen, which can be ignited by a nearby spark (for example, when removing the jumper cables).
When a battery is recharged at an excessive rate, an explosive gas mixture of hydrogen and oxygen may be produced faster than it can escape from within the walls of the battery, leading to pressure build-up and the possibility of the battery case bursting. In extreme cases, the battery acid may spray violently from the casing of the battery and cause injury. Overcharging—that is, attempting to charge a battery beyond its electrical capacity—can also lead to a battery explosion, leakage, or irreversible damage to the battery. It may also cause damage to the charger or device in which the overcharged battery is later used. Additionally, disposing of a battery in fire may cause an explosion as steam builds up within the sealed case of the battery.[63]
[edit]Environmental concerns
Since their development over 250 years ago, batteries have remained among the most expensive energy sources, and their manufacturing consumes many valuable resources and often involves hazardous chemicals. Used batteries also contribute to electronic waste. For these reasons, many areas now have battery recycling services available to recover some of the more toxic (and sometimes valuable) materials from used batteries.[64] Batteries may be harmful or fatal if swallowed.[65] It is also important to prevent dangerous elements, such as lead, mercury, and cadmium, that are found in some types of batteries from entering the environment.

Since the late 1990s, advances in battery technologies have been driven by skyrocketing demand for laptop computers and mobile phones, with consumer demand for more features, larger, brighter displays, and longer battery time driving research and development in the field. The electric vehicle marketplace has reaped the benefits of these advances.
[edit]See also

Electronics Portal
energy Portal
A battery (vacuum tubes)
B battery (vacuum tubes)
C battery (vacuum tubes)
AA battery
AAA battery
AAAA battery
C battery
D battery
Alkaline battery
Battery Directive
Battery holder
Battery terminals
Car battery
Galvanic cell
Electrochemical cell
Energy density
Lead-acid battery
List of battery sizes
List of battery types
Nano titanate
Nanowire battery
Recharging batteries
Replacing batteries
Battery recycling
Thermal runaway
Trickle charging
Watch battery

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^ Ask Yahoo: Does putting batteries in the freezer make them last longer?. Retrieved 7 March 2007.
^ Duracell: Battery Care. Retrieved 7 March 2007.
^ Energizer.com - Learning Center - Energizer and the Environment. Accessed 17 December 2007.
^ a b Battery dont's - Global-Batteries. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
^ Battery Recycling » Earth 911. Retrieved 9 September 2007.
^ Product Safety DataSheet - Energizer (PDF, p. 2). Retrieved 9 September 2007.
[edit]Further reading
Dingrando, Laurel; et al. (2007). Chemistry: Matter and Change. New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-877237-5. Ch. 21 (pp. 662-695) is on electrochemistry.
Fink, Donald G.; H. Wayne Beaty (1978). Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, Eleventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07020974-X.
Knight, Randall D. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: A Strategic Approach. San Francisco: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-8053-8960-1. Chs. 28-31 (pp. 879-995) contain information on electric potential.
Linden, David; Thomas B. Reddy (2001). Handbook Of Batteries. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-0713-5978-8.
Saslow, Wayne M. (2002). Electricity, Magnetism, and Light. Toronto: Thomson Learning. ISBN 0-12-619455-6. Chs. 8-9 (pp. 336-418) have more information on batteries.
[edit]External links

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Begin forwarded message:
From: Florence T. Cua
Date: April 15, 2008 11:43:32 AM EDT
To: Christine Peterson , p.armbruster@gsi.de
Subject: Fwd: Atomic, Nuclear and Radiation Batteries Jeffrery, place ASAP in http://www.freewebs.com/ftcuatableofelements/

Begin forwarded message:
From: Florence T. Cua
Date: April 15, 2008 11:29:05 AM EDT
To: ricardo.palabrica@uspto.gov, ccbernido@pnri.dost.gov.ph, j gan , tvleonin@pnri.dost.gov.ph, info@iaea.org, kao@bnl.gov
Cc: lpopas@ieee.org, Edward Christman , ebaldu@yahoo.com
Subject: Atomic, Nuclear and Radiation Batteries Jeffrery, place ASAP in http://www.freewebs.com/ftcuatableofelements/

Title: Atomic, Nuclear and Radiation Batteries

from Wikipedia Encyclopedia


Atomic batteries use radioisotopes that produce low energy beta particles or sometimes alpha particles of varying energies. Low energy beta particles are needed to prevent the production of high energy penetrating Bremsstrahlung radiation that would require heavy shielding. Radioisotopes such as tritium, nickel-63, promethium-147, and technetium-99 have been tested. Plutonium-238, curium-242, curium-244 and strontium-90 have been used.
Atomic batteries usually have an efficiency of 0.1–5%.

Main article: Optoelectric nuclear battery
An optolectric nuclear battery has also been proposed by researchers of the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow. A beta-emitter (such as technetium-99) would stimulate an excimer mixture, and the light would power a photocell. The battery would consist of an excimer mixture of argon/xenon in a pressure vessel with an internal mirrored surface, finely-divided Tc-99, and an intermittent ultrasonic stirrer, illuminating a photocell with a bandgap tuned for the excimer. If the pressure-vessel is carbon fiber/epoxy, the weight to power ratio is said to be comparable to an air-breathing engine with fuel tanks. The advantage of this design is that precision electrode assemblies are not needed, and most beta particles escape the finely-divided bulk material to contribute to the battery's net power.


The Russians were trying to interest us with second hand radioisotope thermal generators.

The USA John Glenn Research Center is perfecting the Stirling Radioisotope Thermal Generators.



Aleees and NSRRC entered a collaborative agreement.
Aleees and NSRRC will corporate on advancing the nano-LFP battery technology.



check out the cross section of Li-6 for neutrons for the cross section of Li-7 for gamma...




Behavior of Li-Ion Cells in High-Intensity Radiation Environments
J. Electrochem. Soc., Volume 151, Issue 4, pp. A652-A659 (2004)
B. V. Ratnakumar, M. C. Smart, L. D. Whitcanack, E. D. Davies, K. B. Chin, F. Deligiannis, and S. Surampudi
Electrochemical Technologies Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA


Plainsboro Public Library, please obtain for the the Article above-mentioned and below-mentioned. Highlighted.



Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Applications
Bugga, Ratnakumar Smart, Marshall Whitacre, Jay West, William
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109. ratnakumar.v.bugga@jpl.nasa.gov; 818 354 0110;

This paper appears in: Aerospace Conference, 2007 IEEE
Publication Date: 3-10 March 2007
On page(s): 1-7
Location: Big Sky, MT, USA,
ISSN: 1095-323X
ISBN: 1-4244-0525-4
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/AERO.2007.352728
Posted online: 2007-06-18 10:23:29.0

Interplanetary missions require rechargeable batteries with unique performance characteristics: high specific energy, wide operating temperatures, demonstrated reliability, and safety. Li-ion batteries are fast becoming the most common energy storage solution for these missions, as they are able to meet the more demanding technical specifications without being excessively massive. At JPL, we have undertaken materials development studies on both cathodes and electrolytes with the goal of further enhancing battery specific energy, discharge and charge capability, and functional temperature range. Results of these studies are described below.



1. http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5122332.html

Protecting organisms and the environment from harmful radiation by controlling such radiation and safely disposing of its energy
Document Type and Number:
United States Patent 5122332
Link to this page:
A radiation gradient is utilized to transform harmful radiant energy into safer, more useful forms, thus collecting, controlling and consuming the energies of radiant emissions and protecting the environment and living organisms from them. More specifically, there is disclosed a new process for shielding emitters of harmful radiation by establishing an electrical circuit, which process includes shielding the source of radiation while collecting the energy of relatively more radiation on an electrically conductive material and collecting the energy of relatively less radiation on other electrically conductive material, which may include a ground or external sink, thus establishing a difference in electrical potential, and transferring this potential difference, along with any potential difference from auxiliary devices, outside the shielded area, to resistors and/or variable other loads, which consume the voltage as it is created. In this way emissions of radiation are converted to electrical energy and are controlled and the source of radiation is better shielded because the described process prevents build-up of energy within the shielded area and prevents consequent deterioration of the shielding material, thus preventing flash-overs, accidents, breaks and leaks in the shielding and providing greater protection of living organisms.

2. http://www.sprawls.org/ppmi2/ERAD/

Energy and Radiation
Perry Sprawls, Ph.D.

3. Needed: Batteries that we charge with electromagnetic radiation

4. http://www.gradschool.umd.edu/catalog/archives/spring2000/COURSES/ENNU.HTM

5. Should you buy second hand Radioisotope Thermal Generators from the Russians or the Americans?

6. The relatively new one is Stirling Radioisotope Thermal Generator, the prototype by NASA Glenn Research Center.



7. Electrical Generators


8. Batteries for All Seasons and All Applications








Now you should learn about Stirlling Radioisotope Thermal Generators.


Lithium Ion Batteries


NiCd batteries: rechargeables


Question: we know that cadmium stop fast neutrons and reduce it to thermal.

Now, what is the effect of neutrons with fast energies on NiCds or just CADs?

Also, what is the way to "harness" alphas to work on energizing batteries? The ruination of the flesh from alphas can be obviated if the flesh is not the object but the batteries that is not flesh. And I do not like the Borgs since they are metallic Communist.